The Heritage Lodge
No. 730, A.F.& A.M., G.R.C.
Instituted: Sept. 2\ 1977
Constituted: Sept. 23, 1987
Vol. 10, 1986 - 1987
W.Bix>. Altwrt A. Barker
Editor R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos
10 M«yfl*ld Av*nua,
Qudph, Ont, N1Q 2L8
It is a priviledge to write the intro-
duction to the proceedings for this year.
Our meetings in Cambridge have been
complemented with additional meetings
held in Brantford and Belleville. The
highlight of the year was our Annual
Heritage Banquet* in Toronto, with an
excellent address by, V.W.Bro. Matthews.
I would be remiss if I did not express
our sincere gratitude to, R.W.Bro.
Balfour LeGresley, on the successful
completion of the C.M.R.A. Project. We
are also indebted to, Bro. Basil Liaskis,
for his generosity in the gift of The
Black Creek Temple painting and limited
edition prints to The Heritage Lodge.
The Heritage Lodge No. 730, is the
first regularly Constituted Historical
Lodge in Ontario, and as such our seven
objectives are well defined. It is
because of the uniqueness of the lodge
that we must endeavour to implement
important changes in our By-Laws to
reflect on its true characteristics.
Meaningful changes come slowly, but the
significant work accomplished in the ten
short years must be recognized in the
unique structure by which this lodge is
We look forward to the future, as we
continue to preserve our masonic past.
It has been an honour to serve as
Albert A. Barker, W.M.
ALBERT ARTHUR BARKER
Worshipful Master, 1986-1987
Initiated in Reba Lodge No. 515, 1974
Worshipful Master Reba Lodge No. 515, 1979
Charter Member The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 1977
Murton Lodge of Perfection, A.&A.S.R., 1976
Hamilton Sovereign Chapter Rose Croix, 1977
Moore Sovereign Consistory, Hamilton, 1978
President Brantford Scottish Rite Assoc, 1982
Two of the papers presented this year
were complemented with coloured slides.
Only those in attendance at our September
meeting could fully appreciate the
illustrated presentation by W.Bro. John
Boersma titled "The Vienna Triad'. He
gave us a colourful insight into the
influence of Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn,
not only on music in general, but also
that which had a pronounced effect on
Slides were also effectively used by
one of the reviewers of the paper on
"Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant'. Bro.
Mitchell in his formal presentation and
detailed rebuttal added new information
on this famous Mohawk Chief who played a
major role in the early history of North
Amer i ca •
Those who attended the Third Annual
Heritage Banquet, were privileged to hear
Dr. B.C. Matthews, President of the
University of Guelph, discuss a compar-
ison between the twin columns that
support a modern university namely, the
pursuit of science and humanistic
studies, and the parallel search for
knowledge and moral values of Free-
masonr y .
We are taken on a very pleasant journey
through the Masonic works of Rudyard
Kipling by R. W.Bro. David Warren; who
shows us how Freemasonry, particularly
the Ritual, has influenced the production
of so many of Kipling's poems and
stories. Unfortunately there was no
review of this paper. We would be
interested in receiving your comments
concerning the number of reviewers for a
paper, and also concerning the guidelines
for preparing papers for presentation at
our meetings, (see page 156).
The contributors to the Proceedings of
this Lodge are alone responsible for the
opinions expressed and also for the
accuracy of the statements made therein.
The opinions expressed by the contribu-
tors do not necessarily reflect the
opinions, attitudes or policies of The
Heritage Lodge No. 730, G.R.C.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Forward , 1
The Worshipful Master, W.Bro. Albert A.
Editorial Comment s, 3
Table of Contents, 5
.The Vienna Triad, by W.Bro. J. Boersma, 6
Paper Review by: R. W.Bro. W.E. McLeod,.56
Response to Review by, W.Bro. John
Knowledge - The University, and
Moral Val ue s ,
by V. W.Bro. B.C. Matthews, .... 61
-Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant,
by Bro. Wm . W. Mitchell, 76
Paper Reviews by:
W.Bro. Malcolm Montgomery, ... 95
R. W.Bro. Wallace E. McLeod, .. 102
R. W.Bro. Jack Pos, 105
Response to Reviewers,
by Bro. Wm . W. Mitchell, 117
by R. W.Bro. E. David Warren,.. 139
Guidelines for Preparing Historical
Our Departed Brethren, 163
Past Master, V. W.Bro. George E.
Lodge Officers and Committees, 167
THE VIENNA TRIAD*
W.Bro. John Boersma
A 'Triad' is a harmonious chord, which
consists of a key note simultaneously
heard, together with its third and fifth.
Vienna, nestled at the foothills of the
Alps, in the Hungarian plain, was a
natural meeting place. Here, the great
ancient highways met, from the Baltic to
the Mediterranean at that mighty blue
river, the Danube or Donau .
Along these routes, Celts, Romans,
Turks, French, Poles and all kinds of
nations and races came, marching, fight-
ing, trading, settling, praying and
Gathered around our great Masonic
Light, surrounded by wisdom, beauty and
strength, we dare introduce you to three
giants of music, who carried the standard
of harmony from the age of the baroque,
through the century of "Enlightenment"
into the very generation of Romance.
Paper presented at the Regular
Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in the
Preston-Hespeler Masonic Temple,
Cambridge, Wednesday, Sept. 17, 1986.
For a background, we ask your indul-
gence to reach back in time.
"THE BEST THING» WHICH WE DERIVE FROM
HISTORY, IS THE ENTHUSIASM IT RAISES
IN US." - Goethe
Frederick, the Wise, the elector of
Saxony, appointed a gifted Augustinian
Monk to become professor at the Univers-
ity in Wittenberg. His faculty ... The
Volume of the Sacred Law.
This ascetic monk had long been engaged
in a spiritual struggle, in a quest for
peace of mind and a gracious understand-
ing of God •
During the winter months of 1512-1513,
this sensitive, high-strung priest was
meditating on St. Paul to the Romans,
"For I as not ashamed of the
Gospel of Christ: For it is in the
power of God unto salvation to
everyone that believeth: To the
Jew first and also to the Greek.
For therein is the righteousness
of God revealed, from faith to
faith ... as it is written ... The
just shall live by Faith."
Martin Luther (1483-1546), the profound
religious genius, was to find at last the
peace he had searched for . . . and soon he
was to revolt against the mercenary and
selfish ecclesiastical institutions of
his day .
Soon, freedom of conscience would be
interpreted as freedom from feudal and
ecclesiastical oppression ... soon
thousands of peasants would revolt and
perish. Man's "RIGHT" to interpret the
Bible according to his own conscience,
would become the foundation stone of a
new religious freedom and the Holy Roman
Empire would never be the same again.
The monk, who, as a youth, earned his
living by singing songs, became the man
to translate the Bible in German, who as
such "fathered", the German language.
In his many agonies, he would call upon
music ... as "the art of the prophets,
the only art that can calm the agitations
of the soul".
The Holy Roman Empire, dated from
Charles the Great, King of The Franks in
the eight century. In Luther's day
Charles V reigned (1500-1558).
THE HAPSBURG DYNASTY:
It gained the title of "Holy Roman
Emperor" at the coronation of Frederick
III in 1452. His son Maximilian, by his
own and his children's marriages, added
Spain, parts of America, Naples, Sicily,
several French provinces and the Nether-
lands to the Hapsburg territories in
Aus t r ia .
His grandson, Charles V, ruled over
greater lands than any other European
Monarch. He never forgave himself for
letting Luther escape from his power at
the Diet of Worms in 1521.
In 1555, at the peace of Augsburg, he
was forced to acknowledge a permanently-
established protestantism over a large
part of Germany.
Charles V, that very next year, re-
tired, broken in spirit, to a monastery.
He bequeathed his heritage to the Austr-
ian and Spanish branches of the family
and so weakened the Hapsburg Power.
The treaty of Augsburg permitted the
Rulers of a given State, to dictate his
her religion on the population. Thus»
the wretched masses were
conform to the Ruler's "Taste".
Thus the seeds of the great "Thirty
Year War" were sown.
Historians have been unable to even
begin to paint the horrors of this war
which started in 1618. It afflicted the
States bound by the Rhine, the Danube,
the Elbe and the North Sea. It devastated
unlike an earthquake, a cyclone or even a
plague. Tens of millions of people
perished as hordes of Swedish, Spanish,
French, Austrians and other "volunteer"
soldiers raped, pillaged and plundered to
their heart's content.
Two-thirds of the population of Dresden
perished, the citizens of Wurtenburg were
reduced from 400,000 to 40,000 ...
Wiesbaden lost all its houses and the few
survivors lived like hermits among the
wild animals in the ruins.
Sweden had become a formidable imperial
power ... and was ruled by Gustavus II
(Adolphus) ... a competent monarch whose
tact and wisdom had won him the respect
and trust of his nobles.
Gustav II turned his attention to the
protestant cause in Germany. On September
17» 1631, he defeated the imperial
commander Tilly at Breitenfeld, he then
conquered Munich and came close to the
Imperial City of Vienna.
Wallenstein, the new Imperial Commander
(Tilly had died on the battlefield),
drove Gustav out of Bavaria ••• but
Gustavus II confronted him in battle at
Lutzen on November 16, 1631. Here, Gustav
was mortally wounded.
The blade of his sword is reputed to
have been found on his body. It was
acquired by Thomas Howard, eighth duke of
Norfolk and Grand Master of the Grand
Lodge of England 1730-1731. He presented
it to this Grand Lodge ... and today, it
forms the blade of the Grand-Lodge's
The French Valois Kings, while combat-
ting the Huguenots at Home and using the
Jesuits to spearhead a great Catholic
revival in France ... nevertheless ...
hated the Hapsburgs, so much, that they
supported the German protestants against
the Hapsburg Emperor.
Finally in 1648, the "Peace" of West-
phalia assured the demolition of even
such concept as "a united Germany".
France encouraged the sovereignty of
every petty princedom of which there
were about three hundred.
For example, the district of Bavaria
from which hailed a Leopold Mozart
harbored ... 97 sovereigns ... 4 ecclesi-
astical princes, 14 secular princes, 25
Lords of Manor, 30 Imperial Towns and 23
Each of these endeavoured to climb up
the ladder, over the backs of tolls,
taxes and other extortions from the
To quote Adrien Fauchier ..." Gratitude
towards music loving princes, ought to be
tempered by the knowledge of human
misery, inflicted in pursuit of their
admired tastes, as well as their disrepu-
For a century, Germany was to remain in
the stillness of exhaustion.
The Holy Roman Empire was virtually
destroyed, although the 'Electors'
continued to carry their titles ... and
would continue to exercise their 'right'
to elect the Emperor.
As a forecast of further terrors to
come, Vienna in 1679, was struck by the
plague which claimed about 100,000
victims. The Turks, who fortunately had
been quiescent for decades, now saw in
this torn and exhausted Continent of
Europe, the chance for victory ... backed
by 'allies', including France, who
preferred Turkish rule over the hated
Hapsburgs, a huge army of over 300,000
troops rolled in 1683 towards the gates
of Vi enna •
The defending forces were led by the
Emperor Leopold I - Jan Sobieski - the
giant and fearless king of Poland - and
the Duke of Lorraine.
After two hair-raising months, the
defending troops caught the Turks in a
pincer movement between themselves and
troops streaming out of the city and
mainly thanks to the magnificently
armoured Polish cavalry, the Turks were
routed and soundly defeated.
Two famous spoils of war were a great
gold-crescent which was placed on the
spire of St. Stephen's Cathedral and - so
the legend goes - a sack of Strang seeds
yielding the first coffee ever to be
drunk in Europe. It was in that year that
the Viennese coffee houses opened for
bus ine s s .
The First Royal Freemason
The Empress Maria Theresa, was the
granddaughter of the Emperor Leopold I.
She ruled as Archduchess of Austria and
Queen of Hungary and Bohemia from 1740 to
She married her cousin Francis of
Lorraine, who was elected Holy Roman
Emperor in 1745.
He was initiated through the good
sponsorship of the English ambassador
Lord Chesterfield by Rev. John Theophilus
Desaguliers, the father of modern specul-
ative Freemasonry, the third Grand Master
after the great revival.
The place of this initiation was the
Hague, Holland, where he presided as
Worshipful Master over a lodge organized
by special dispensation, to initiate and
pass the Duke of Lorraine. The year was
1731. That same year, the Duke was raised
to the sublime degree in the 'Maids Head'
Lodge in Norwich, England.
One year after this event ... in 1732
... on the 31st of March, Frank Joseph
Hydn was born, at Rohrau, Lower Austria,
in a corner of the Hapsburg empire, with
a population of mixed ancestry ...
Austrian, Hungarian, Moravian, Slovak and
Croation. Attempts have been made to show
him a Czech, a Croat, a Hungarian or a
E.F. Schmid in 1934 marshalled suffici-
ent documentary evidence to make a
decisive case for Haydn to have been born
of 'pure German' stock.
Some of his ancestors may have been of
Slav descent and the merry tunes evident
in much of his music are, it is claimed,
those of Croation peasants ... It is
hardly too much to say that Haydn stood
to the folk music of Croatia, as Robbie
Burns stood to the peasant songs of
Scot land .
Haydn's father had twelve children,
half of which survived to adulthood and
three of which, Joseph, Michael and Johan
Evangelist became musicians. Michael was
to become a good friend of Mozart as was
Joseph Haydn himself.
At the age of eight, Joseph became a
choir boy at St. Stephens Cathedral in
Vienna where Karl George Reutter was
Kapellmeister or musical director.
Reutter being naturally ambitious and the
composer of a large quantity of church
music, had little time left to concen-
trate on the welfare and instructions of
the choristers in his charge ... as a
result, the singers were poorly fed and
not well educated ... Haydn always looked
forward to be invited as a member of
functions of the choir outside, when a
decent meal might be available.
Haydn himself said ... He never had a
proper teacher ... I started with the
practical side, first in singing, then in
playing instruments and later in composi-
tion. I listened more than I studied. I
listened a t t en t a t i v e 1 y and tried to turn
to good account what most impressed me.
In this way, my knowledge and ability
were developed. I heard the finest music
in all forms that was to be heard in my
time, and of that there was much in
Vi enna .
At age 17, his voice broke and his
departure from the choir school came
suddenly ... his brother Michael took
over Joseph's solo parts ... and Joseph
Haydn, always a prankster, foolishly cut
off the pigtail of a fellow chorister.
When Reuter threatened to cane him,
Haydn said he would rather leave the
choir than suffer this indignity ...
Reuter promptly expelled him (only after
he had caned him).
And so on a cold November morning in
1749, 17 year Haydn found himself without
money or lodgings and totally unprepared
to earn a living, on the streets of
Vi enna •
Later, he was to say ... "What I am, is
all the result of the direst need".
Gradually, he became known in the
musical circles of Vienna and as he said
... "but I had to eke out a wretched
existence for eight years". In 1758,
Haydn obtained his first musical post, as
director of the orchestra of Count
Ferdinand Maximilian von Morzin ... at a
yearly salary of 200 florins, not enough
but at least some security ... At the
Morzin summer residence, he performed his
first Symphony and met Prince Anton
Esterhazy who was to become an important
person in his life.
At this time, he also fell in love with
a pupil, Therese Keller, the younger
daughter of a Viennese hairdresser •••
However, Therese opted to become a nun
and entered St. Nicholas convent.
In 1760, Haydn married her sister Maria
Ann in St. Stephen's on November 26.
Unlike Mozart, however, who married the
sister of his first love, and was happy,
Haydn soon found her incompatible, ill-
natured, totally indifferent to music and
quite incapable of providing either a
home or children.
Early in 1761, Count Morzin found
himself in financial difficulties and had
to disband his orchestra.
Prince Paul Esterhazy heard that Haydn
was unemployed and at once offered him
the appointment of assistant conductor of
his orchestra at" Eisenstadt", his palace
40 kilometers south of Vienna.
Since the Hungarian War of Independence
(1711), the Austrian Court deliberately
strengthened the position of the Hungar-
ian Aristocracy so as to keep them loyal
to the Emp ire.
With the coming of Maria Therese to the
throne of Austria, music at the Viennese
court began to wane. Fewer court music-
ians were employed and less and less
imperial encouragement was given. The
nobility took over the role of encourag-
ing and supporting musicians.
The foremost family in Hungary in the
18th century was the House of Esterhazy
of Galanta. Its beginning is traced to
Nicholas (born 1583) and expelled from
his protestant family for espousing the
Catholic faith. Nicholas twice married
young rich widows and thereby amassed a
fortune. Through various political and
religious intrigues, he came in possess-
ion of numerous estates including that of
Eisenstadt. Paul Anton Esterhazy inheri-
ted the title Palatine at age 10. When
Haydn entered the services of the Eisens-
tadt household, the orchestra, choir and
company of actors were established
f eatur es .
The contract to which Haydn put his
signature still exists. It may see
severly restricted by today's standard
V d n ' s
position. It safeguarded the position of
the aged Werner. It gave Haydn sole
control of the orchestra, and promised
the position of Kapellmeister upon
Werner's retirement. He was to conduct
himself soberly and set an example for
other musicians who were placed in his
All compositions he wrote were to be
for the exclusive use of the prince. A
clause forbidding writing or copying of
Haydn's music outside of Eisenstadt was
either annulled or ignored later. His
annual salary was 400 florins. This
contract was for three years.
For this music-loving Prince, Haydn,
who was rightly called the father of the
symphony, wrote three symphonies: Le
Matin (the morning), Le Midi (the after-
noon) and Le Soir (the evening). The
Prince - Paul Esterhazy - had suggested
these titles himself. He died less than a
year after Haydn's appointment on March
Prince Nicholas (Miklos) "The Magnific-
ent", his brother and successor delighted
in extravagant entertainment. He played a
now obsolete instrument the 'viola di
bordone' baryton. Haydn was virtually
forced to compose music for this diffi-
cult to handle instrument. He composed
between 1762 and 1775 about 160 diverti-
menti for baryton, viola and cello of
which 126 have survived. He also learned
to play the s i x- gu t - s t r i nged instrument
only to incur the jealousy of his patron.
Here, he wrote his first operas. Haydn's
father died in 1763 and in 1765, his
brother Johan Evangelist joined the
company of singers as a tenor. His
brother M i c hae 1 -Ke 1 1 y had been appointed
musical director to Archbishop Sigismund
of Salzburg in 1762. He remained in
Salzburg for the rest of his life,
becoming a close friend of the Mozart
f ami 1 y .
Prince Nicholas visited Paris in 1764
and became so enchanted with the palace
and gardens of Versailles that he resol-
ved to establish his very own.
The place he selected was a waterlogged
forest at Sutter besides Lake Beusidler,
which often flooded. Four years later,
after draining and erecting dams, the
Castle of Esterhazy was ready for occu-
panc y .
The Paris Symphonies
By 1775, Haydn was internationally
known and on March 27, 1781, Haydn
advised his Viennese publisher Artaria
that "A Monsieur Le Gros, director of Les
Concerts Spirituels, had made him compli-
mentary remarks about his 'Stabat Mater'
... and asked permission to engrave this.
Furthermore, they had made him an 'advan-
tageous' offer to 'engrave' all future
works " .
The 'Concerts Spirituels' was founded
in Paris in 1725, but progressive works
were given at the 'Concerts des Amateurs'
which in 1780 became 'Concert de la loge
Olympique', because of the venue or
location was that of a masonic lodge.
This Concert de la loge Olympique,
invited Haydn to write six symphonies and
thus were the famous six Paris Symphonies
born (// 82-87). They were nicknamed *The
Bear» The Hen and La Reine' (as it was
the favorite of Marie Antoinette).
Compte d'Ogny, a well known mason and
one of its directors, requested three
more symphonies, which Haydn completed in
1788. The composer received twenty-five
Louis d'or for each of these symphonies,
which, according to Count d'Ogny's
report, appeared colossal to him.
We should not fail to refer to a
prevailing practice in Paris of initiat-
ing musicians for lodge-inspired funct-
ions. After their initiation in the first
degree, no further obligations were
r equ i red .
Some masonic scholars have interpreted
this "association" between Haydn, Count
d'Ogny and La Loge Olmpique as proof of
Haydn's masonic involvement. To the
writer, it appears merely a fortunate and
lucrative business connection.
Haydn's ' i ndu s t r i ou sne s s ' is exempli-
fied by the last series of Paris symphon-
ies. Orchestral parts of the same works
were in the following year sold by the
composer to the Bavarian Prince Kraf f t
Ernst of O t t i ngen - Wa 1 1 e r s t e i n . In July,
1791, Haydn would dedicate the same
symphonies - not yet known in London - to
Oxford University on his elevation as
Doctor of Music and thus they became
known as the 'Oxford Symphonies' .
At last in 1784, Sc h 1 o s s - E s t e r ha z y was
completed. The cost - a mere eleven
million florins or guilders, or nearly
two million pound sterling or four
Yes, Haydn's patron Prince Nicholas of
Esterhazy was indeed extravagantly
'Magnificent'. He also happened to be
related to the W. Master of the Masonic
Lodge ' Zur gekronten Hoffnung' or Crowned
Hope, which was Mozart's lodge.
In December of that year, Joseph Haydn
sent the following letter to the Master
of Ceremonies of a somewhat more fashion-
able lodge 'Zur Waehren Eintracht' or
"Nobly born» Most highly respected Herr
The highly advantageous inpression
which Freenasonry has nade on ne has long
awakened in ny breast the sincerest wish
to becoae a Member of the Order » with its
humanitarian and wise principles. I turn
to you. Sir, with the most urgent request
that you have the great kindness to
intervene on my behalf with the Lodge of
the Order, in order to implement this
petition, as indicated above. I have the
honour to remain, with profound esteem.
Your obedient servant,
CapellMesiter to Prince Esterhazy
Vienna the 29th of the Christmas Month
As a 17-year old boy, Mozart had first
heard music of the great Haydn in Vienna,
but it was not unti 1781 that the two of
them probably met. It appears that
between the young man of 25, and the 50-
year old, father of the symphony, a rare
and lasting friendship grew.
This was the more remarkable as, apart
from the generation gap, their characters
were almost opposite. Mozart was gener-
ally careless in all matters other than
music (and punctuality in writing to Papa
Leopold). He was the brilliant key board
virtuoso who wrote music anywhere at
astounding speed, virtually, without
corr ec t ions .
Haydn was no soloist, by his own
admission, and was a comparatively slow
worker. He was, however, a meticulous and
efficient administrator both of himself
and of others entrusted in his care. This
had earned him the nickname 'Papa Haydn'
at Esterhazy ... as he took fatherly care
of the musicians in his charge.
Mozart too was to call him 'Papa*.
Moreover, Mozart liked indoor games
like billiards, whereas Haydn had a
Croatian love of what is called 'sport'
and the proverbial saying on the princely
estate was "as good a shot and fisherman
Talking about billiards, Mozart used to
play it, after a doctor had advised him
to take some exercise (he even bought a
horse at that time). His favorite player
may have been an Irishman by the name of
Michael Kelly, a singer and actor at the
'Italian Opera'. He frequently visited
the Mozarts. In his reminiscences, we get
an excellent description of Mozart.
Description of Mozart
"He was a remarkably small man ... very
thin ... and pale ... with a profusion of
fine hair, of which he was rather vain
... he always received me with kindness
and hospitality ... he was remarkably
fond of punch, taking copious draughts
thereof ... he was fond of billiards ...
and I always came off second best ... he
was kindhearted and ready to oblige ...
but, so very particular when he played
... if the slightest noise was made, he
instantly left off ...".
It is suggested that Mozart and Haydn
discussed Masonry before Haydn*s written
request for admission ... this may well
be so, who knows? Haydn did join a
different lodge and Mozart was not his
s ponsor .
But Mozart, in his own inimitable way,
was to show Haydn and history just how
highly he thought of Haydn.
He dedicated to Haydn six important
quartets along with a stylized, respect-
ful dedication, in which, however, he
also demanded respect and recognition.
The peculiar aspect of these quartets is
that Mozart, contrary to his normal way
of 'instant' composing, had laboured over
this for a lengthy period and moreover,
we know, made many alterations as he
pondered this endeavour.
He presented them to Papa Haydn comme
'II frutto di una lunga e laboriosa
fattica* ... as 'the fruit of something
over which he had laboured hard and
long • .
Leopold (Papa) Mozart, now old and
lonely, visited his famous son. He was
far from impressed with Constance's poor
housekeeping, but thoroughly enjoyed the
high standard of the orchestra which
Mozart conducted and last but not least
the impressive number of nobility pre-
sent. ••• Leopold knew the ropes ...
freelance meant - starvation ... politics
added to nobility meant - security. Three
months later. Father Leopold was
become an entered apprentice mason.
When Mozart introduced his father to
Haydn, *Papa* said to Leopold "I, as an
honest man, tell you before God that your
son is the greatest composer I know in
person or by name. He has taste and
moreover the most thorough knowledge of
compos it ion . "
Leopold then realized that his sacrifi-
ces and concerns had not been in vain,
that Mozart indeed fulfilled the destiny
envisioned by Leopold ... was indeed a
Late in 1785, Mozart wrote his beauti-
ful funeral music (K.477) for a lodge of
sorrows of two distinguished brethren,
including Johann Count Esterhazy. Haydn,
at that time, was quite a celebrity and
one might expect him to have been present
at such an occasion, for a late relative
of his patron. No record of his presence
has come to us .
As a matter of fact, no record exists
to show that Brother Haydn ever set foot
in a lodge after his initiation on
February 11 in the lodge 'Zur Wahren
Eintracht*. Some say Haydn took his demit
Between 1785 and 1790, there appears to
have been no personal contact between
Mozart and Haydn.
The next time we see Mozart and Haydn
together, is in the company of Puchberg
in early 1790, at the final rehearsals of
Cosi Fan Tutte.
By that time, the French Revolution was
six months in earnest progress, after the
fall of the Bastille in 1789 ... and
within 18 months, on June 20, 1791, the
Garde Nationale was to arrest King Louis
XVI and the 'Austrian women' Marie
Antoinette on their attempted flight from
France to Varennes.
A lot was to happen to Mozart and Haydn
in those 18 months.
On February 20, shortly after the
Premiere of Cosi Fan Tutti, the Emperor
Joseph II, died and with him the last
influential member of the Imperial Court,
sympathetic to Mozart.
Ludwig van Beethoven, then 19 years
old, composed an impressive cantata 'on
the death of the Emperor' whose social
and political ideas, known as the 'En-
lightenment' were readily welcomed in
Bonn, where Beethoven was born.
In May of that year, Constanze was on
one of her frequent visits to the mineral
baths for the cure ... and in the mean-
time, another resident of Bonn, born in
the same house as Beethoven, visited
His name was John Peter Salomon who
played the violin creditably; he was a
composer and had settled in London.
Salomon had heard of the death of Haydn's
employer, Nicholas Count Esterhazy in
September and he hastened to Haydn, who
was now free, to make him an offer he
could not refuse.
Haydn bid a tearful farewell to his
friend Mozart and set out for London with
Salomon, who was a member of the famous
Pilgrim Lodge. On the way, they passed by
Bonn, where Haydn first met Beethoven.
In London, Haydn became the toast of
the city. He was invited to the Royal
Court, presented to her Majesty the Queen
and after performing in early March, a
newly created symphony //102 in B flat,
was fortunate that the massive chandelier
fell from the ceiling just after the
audience had left. This symphony became
known as The Miracle Symphony.
In July, the University of Oxford
proudly adorned Haydn's almost 60-year
old, somewhat dumpy figure, with the
wh i t e - f i gu r e d silk and c he r r y -co 1 our ed
satin of a Doctor of Music.
In the same month, Constanze Mozart
gave birth to her sixth child Franz Xaver
Wolfgang, who was to survive his father
by 5 3 years •
Whereas in that year, Haydn basked in
Pertinent to our story is a special
visitor to the Mozart House, a 16-year
old boy, short, stocky and dark, by the
name of Ludwig van Beethoven.
He came to study under the great
master, but unfortunately had to leave
after only two weeks, due to the mortal
illness of his mother. Legend has it that
Wolfgang prophesied that "This young man
would certainly make a noise in this
1791 was to be the
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
fatal year for
It proved the culmination of financial
difficulties, health problems, marital
upheavals and circumstances which for
centuries would keep writers, filmmakers
and indulgers in plain gossip buzzing •••
and, as an everlasting credit to his
genius, it proved a year of sublime
outpouring of sometimes gracious, superb,
out-of-this-earth and down-to-earth
music, without a sign of the melancholic,
angry notes that a Beethoven would
produce under similar pressure.
As to Mozart's financial difficulties ...
There is little evidence of any until
the summer of 1788 when the first letter
to Brother Michael Puchberg was sent. It
starts with an admission that Mozart owes
Puchberg 8 ducats (27 guilders).
That summer, Mozart wrote five letters
to his friend and brother asking for a
one-to-two thousand guilder loan, so that
he (Mozart) "could keep his affairs in
order ... meet necessary expenses as they
occur ... and can work with a mind free
and with a lighter heart."
The first letter brought Mozart 100
guilders ... the second letter, in which
Mozart advised his friend that "he had
moved again and this time to cheaper
rooms and more pleasant ... with a
garden", brought 200 guilders. In the
other letters, he implores Puchberg, "in
the name of friendship", to advance money
on two pawntickets, ... "If you, my most
worthy brother, do not help me in this
predicament, I shall lose my honour and
my credit, which of all things I wish to
preserve . "
Five letters ... 300 guilders ... total
debt to Puchberg, 327 guilders. Was
Mozart cheap? In a P.S., to his second
letter, Mozart writes, "When are we
having a little musical party at your
home again? I have composed a new trio".
A new trio indeed!
That summer, in his new and cheaper
'surroundings' , Mozart composed three of
his magnificent symphonies ... The one in
'E' minor (the same key he uses in the
Magic Flute ... and his masonic works)
consisted of a trio ... dedicated to none
other than his friend and brother Michael
Of the other two, the 'Jupiter Sym-
phony' is best known.
In the beginning of 1789, he was again
to write Puchberg ... "Great God! I would
not wish my worst enemy to be in my
position ... and if you forsake me, both
my unfortunate and blameless self, and my
poor sick wife and child, are altogether
lost ... I am composing six easy clavier
sonatas for Princess Priederike and six
quartets for the King ••• two dedications
will bring me in, something ... lend me
another 500 guilders ... *'. The next
letter was sent 5 days later; "I fear you
are angry with me ... if you can and will
entirely relieve ne (referring again to
one large loan) I shall return thanks to
you . . . as my saviour . . . even beyond the
grave ... for you will have enabled me to
further enjoy happiness on this earth".
P.S. "My wife was wretched ill again
yesterday, leeches were applied and she
is, thank God, somewhat better ... I am
indeed most unhappy and am forever
hovering between hope and fear!" Puchberg
noted on the letter "answered the same
day and sent 150 guilders".
Yes, Mozart did return thanks from
beyond the grave ... by immortalizing
Puchberg for what he did and did not do.
Puchberg never claimed the 650 odd
guilders on Mozart's estate and Puchberg
died ... a poor man.
Part of Mozart's financial problems was
the ill-health of his wife Constanze, who
on the advise of her doctor, spent time
at the mineral bath's place Baden near
Vi enna .
In a letter dated April 16, 1789,
Mozart admonishes her ... "I beg you, in
your conduct, not only to be careful of
your honour and mine, but also to con-
On June 11, he was to write ... "Adieu
my love! I am lunching today with Puch-
berg. I kiss you a thousand times and
say, with you, in thought ... 'Death and
Despair'were his reward! ... Ever your
In the period J u 1 y - O c t o b e r , he wrote
her eleven letters ... seven in July and
four in October. In September, Constanze
and Sussmayer were with him, in Prague,
at the performance of II Clemenza di
Mozart's last known letter is again to
his dear little wife, S t anz i -Mar i n i , as
he used to call her in earlier letters.
This letter is dated October 14 and ends
with ... "that you have not written me
for two days is really unforgivable ... I
hope that I shall certainly have a letter
from you today and that tomorrow I shall
talk to you and embrace you with all my
heart. Farewell Ever Your ... Mozart. I
kiss Sophie a thousand times. Do what you
like with N.N. Adieu."
Also, in that last and fatal year 1791,
Mozart acquired a few new pupils.
A. Franz Xa v e r Sussmayer (1766-1803),
who, then twenty-five, spent a good deal
of time both studying with Mozart and
attending to Constanze, particularly
during her 'lonely' stay in Baden taking
the cure. From Mozart's letters, it is
clear that he knew she was "easy to
comply with" ... and when on July 26,
Constanze gave birth to her sixth c h i 1 d »
it was baptized Franz X a v e r Wol fgang
Mozart » ... giving some speculation.
Another 'pupil' was Magdalena Hofdemel,
who was married to Franz Hofdemel,
private secretary to Count Seilern and
later ' J u s t i z -kan z 1 i s t ' , an appointment
in the Vienna Law Courts.
In March 1789, Mozart had written to
Franz Hofdemel, asking for a favour to
lend Mozart 100 gulden until the 20th of
the next month ... and he ends the letter
... "Well, we shall soon be able to call
one another by a more delightful name,
for your novitiate is very nearly at an
end." Hofdemel was about to join the
freemasons order and become "a brother".
Hofdemel acceded to Mozart's request.
Days after Mozart's death, Hofdemel, in
a fit of jealousy, attempted to kill
Magdalena, who was pregnant, with a
razor, and then slit his own throat ...
this suicide, though hushed up, gave rise
to the rumour that Magdalena had been
Mozart's mistress ... and years later,
Beethoven would still refuse to recognize
her . . . The child was christened Johann
von Nepomuk Alexander Franz, the names of
the Godfather, Johann von Nepomuk Alex-
ander Fidel Holderer ... and Franz after
his father ... But, somehow writers will
say he was named after Johann (Mozart's
first name) and his late Father Franz.
Sussmayer, against the wish of Con-
stanze, was to complete Mozart's requiem,
as requested by Wolfgang ... Constanze
was to live with another man for ten
years» before becoming Mrs. Constanze
The letters sent by Leopold to his son,
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, written since
her marriage to him, were burnt by
Constanze; and it took her over seventeen
years to attempt to visit the grave of
Let us return to London, where in that
summer of 1791, Haydn became Dr. Haydn.
As usual he had left his wife, 'Frau
Maria-Anna' at home. Haydn once remarked
"My wife was unable to bear children and
for this reason, I was less indifferent
toward the attractions of other women ...
and ... "she does not care a straw
whether her husband is an artist or a
With great pride in his Doctor's
degree, he wrote Marianne von Genzinger,
"I only wished my Viennese friends could
have seen me . "
Haydn relished in the cosmopolitan
atmosphere of London, accentuated by
scores of r-fugees from the terror of the
French Revolution, and in the 'benefit
concerts' given on his behalf, which
netted him hundreds of pounds ... A new
pupil was to be his ... Rebecca Schroe-
ter, the widow of the well-known pianist
and composer J.S. Schroeter.
At the same time he continued his
affectionate correspondence with Lugia
Polzelli, who he had befriended in 1779,
who after the death of her husband had
moved to Italy and was anxious to come to
London. Instead, he sent her money and
declared himself willing to have her son
Pietro join him in London.
His wife obviously had gotten wind of
Haydn's recent successes with the fair
sex and reprimanded him- Haydn wrote
Luigia "My wife, that infernal beast,
wrote me so many things that I was forced
to answer that I was never coming back.
To this she paid attention."
Haydn too had to pay attention ... to
his employer the new Prince Anton
Esterhazy, as well as to a new Emperor,
Joseph I I .
Upon the death of Joseph I in 1790,
Masonry had lost its last friend at the
Vienna Court. Leopold II was to reign
only two years. He had, it is true,
approved a new lodge, of rosecrucian
nature, *Love and Truth', and an old
lodge, 'St. Joseph', was revived, but in
his last year, he advised all masonic
lodges to halt activities.
We should not be surprised ... Leo-
pold's sister Ma r i e - An t o i n e t t e and her
husband King Louis XVI were arrested, by
the Garde Nationale at Varennes, for
trying to escape France. Some of the real
hotheads of the revolution were free-
masons, such as a Robespierre and Danton.
Leopold made a general appeal to all
sovereigns in Europe to take common
measures 'in view of events* which
threatened 'the honour' of all sover-
e igns .
Joseph II was truly paranoid of secret
societies. The false allegations of a
masonic conspiracy, which led to the
French Revolution, were circulated at the
Court of Vienna by enemies of the
fraternity. The Monarch believed it
blindly. From the day of his coronation,
he lived in fear of secret societies,
Immediately after the death of his
father, he ransacked all chests and
tables in search of insidious writings
relating to masonry and similar things.
He locked it all up in huge port-folios.
Haydn enjoyed His Coronation on his
return from London. His new employer,
Anton of Esterhazy, remarked, "Oh Haydn,
you could have saved me forty thousand
On July 24, 1792, Dr. Haydn arrived in
Vienna, in one of the princely carriages.
Vienna could not care less ... no great
reception ... no elaborate newspaper
articles ... nothing.
Haydn bought a house
in a quiet and
secluded location, for his wife to use as
a residence. He then turned his attention
to Marianne von Genzinger 'for comfort'.
On January 27, 1793, a catastrophe
shook Haydn's existence. Marianne died at
age 43, leaving 5 children.
Something never to be recaptured left
him ... a certain sarcasm set in and a
bitterness. It would be evident on his
second trip to London.
His two pupils were Pietro Polzelli and
Ludwig van Beethoven. Beethoven took
lessons at a nominal rate of eight
groschen per hour.
They met frequently and Beethoven's
memo book reads "chocolate twenty-two-x
( kr euz e r - f ar t h ing 8 ) for Haydn and myself
and coffee six-x (for Haydn and myself)."
We have seen Beethoven in 1787 spending
two weeks with Mozart. It is clear that
he considered Haydn as second best. His
friend and supporter. Count Waldstein,
wrote in Beethoven's album of October 29,
1792, the following farewell as Beethoven
left his birthplace Bonn:
You are travelling to Vienna to fulfill
a 1 o ng - c h e r i 8 hed wi8h. The protecting
genius of Mozart is still weeping and
bewailing the death of her favorite. With
the inexhaustible Haydn, she has found
refuge, but no occupation. She is now
waiting to associate herself with soneone
else. Labour assiduously and receive
Mozart's spirit from the hands of Haydn.
Beethoven did not quite trust Haydn.
During his studies in counterpoint, Haydn
proved careless in correcting his pupil's
errors; on the other hand, Haydn fought
for his pupil's wages from the Elector in
Bonn, by submitting works, composed in
Vienna, as evidence. Alas, some of these
works were already made by Beethoven
before his departure ... leaving Haydn
look ing silly.
Beethoven's arrogance was hard to bear.
Haydn called him jokingly 'The Great
Mongul' ... political differences were,
if possible, more pronounced.
Haydn, a loyal subject of the Austrian
Monarch, was filled with horror at the
happenings in Paris. Napoleon to him was
an archeneny; for his downfall, he
Beethoven rather admired 'the little-
general* and planned to dedicate his
third symphony to his hero, * The Eroica'.
Thus, Beethoven found a new teacher,
Haydn started to plan his second trip
to London and left Vienna on January 19,
1794, in the company of Baron van
Swieten, director of the Vienna court
library, an ardent music lover and a
Beethoven, at that time, was almost 24.
For the past seven years. Freemasonry had
been in a state of increasing disarray,
yet we are left to believe that Beethoven
joined the craft ... ?
We should, at this point, introduce to
you Brother Roger Cotte, Doctor in
Musicology, a connoisseur of the French
18th century musical period.
Roger Cotte is the conductor of 'Groupe
des instruments anciens de Paris' and
research-assistant to Professor J.
Chailley of the Sorbonne. He produced a
monumental biography on Haydn.
On the jacket of one of his recordings
*Mu8iques Rituelles Maconiques du XVIIIe
Siecle', you will find Ludwig van
Beethoven credited with: Marche maconn-
ique and Operlied.
Enclosed is a brief history, prefixed
by a letter from the 'Grande Loge de
France' and we quote:
"Beethoven's appurtenances to Freemasonry
has never been ascertained, yet facts
seem to confirm this supposition. Many of
his melodies have been 'a posteriori'
used with his consent with masonic texts
by one of his best friends, Wegeler, who
was a well-known Freemason.
Witnesses confirm that meeting with
Freemasons, Beethoven has exchanged with
them secret signs known only to by the
initiated. As an exergue to his adagio of
the seventh quatuor, he has also written
a typically masonic sentence which is
vivid proof of his advanced knowledge of
The violinist, Karl Holz, who has been an
intimate friend of Beethoven, told the
musicograph. Otto Jahn, that Beethoven
was a Freemason but . . . not very active
in the last years of his life.
The march, in si-bemol, is evidently a
work with a free masonic purpose. It has
all the characteristics of ceremonial
marches played for the entry and exit of
dignitaries during solemn lodge gather-
They are of an average length, convenient
only, for the short walks to or from the
Worshipful Master's stage, to the
Characterized by an optimistic note, they
must be played by a typical masonic band
of two clarinets, two horns and a
bassoon. They are dated 1792, the period
when Beethoven was most active in
Freemasonry. It must finally be said that
these marches are too modest to have a
military destination and could be only
performed during Freemason ceremonies.
The 'Operlied* (1795?) for pianoforte and
singing voice is tightly linked with
Freemasonry of antique inspiration of the
very type found in the surroundings of
Mozart (Re. Dir Seele des Weltalls,
cantata). The poetic text of Matthison
speaks of sacrifices performed by the
ancients as well as of the four basic
elements (These play an important role in
the initiation to the first degree in
Freemasonry) and of the fight for
freedom. M. Curzon calls it "a wide and
beautiful page, sometimes reminding us of
the hymns sung by the choir of priests of
the Goddess Isis in the Zauberf lote. "
Wegeler has given to this tune a more
ceremonious masonic text." End of quote.
In my research, I have found no other
'evidence* of Beethoven joining our
Back in London, the reporter of the
'Oracle* greeted Haydn with the following
"We must of necessity be brief. And,
after all, it may be best when de chef-
d*oevre of the Great Haydn is the
subject. Come then expressive silence,
muse his praise."
Another paper lauds this "goodhearted,
candid, honest man, esteemed and beloved
This love and esteem were also felt by
members of his orchestra who enjoyed his
sense of humour and friendly ways.
Benefit concerts were well known to
Haydn and his impresario Salomon, who
both derived goodly sums from it.
Brother Webb wrote an excellent article
in AQC volume 94 on Joseph Haydn Free-
mason and Musician. From this we quote:
"Published in the Morning Chronicle of 30
March 1795 is the following:
FREE MASON'S SCHOOL
Under the Patronage of his Royal Highness
the Prince of Wales.
In aid of the Fund for completing and
furnishing the School House in St.
George's Fields, for the Reception and
Maintenance of One Hundred poor Female
Orphans and Children of distressed
A GRAND CONCERT OF VOCAL AND INSTRU-
MENTAL MUSIC will be performed at FREE
MASONS* HALL, on MONDAY 30th March
Haydn noted as follows: 'On 30 March 1795
I was invited by Dr. Arnold and his
associates to a grand concert in Free
Maisons (Haydn's spelling) Hall: one of
my big symphonies was to have been given
under my direction, but since they
wouldn't have any rehearsal, I refused to
co-operate and appear.
It is suggested that a sense of
•perfection' made Haydn decline. We can
only repeat that 'benefit' concerts were
well known to him ... that he basically
had his own orchestra ... and that surely
he had been exposed to his fair share of
He did dedicate three of his finest
piano trios to Mrs. Schroeter and left
scores of his symphonies with 'a lady in
England'. In the spring of 1795» Haydn
planned to return to Vienna, despite the
fact that various members of the British
Royal household made generous offers to
keep him in England.
He even offered the excuse of 'attach-
ment to his wife'.
A more likely reason is the death of
Prince Anton Esterhazy. Anton cared
little about music. His successor,
another Nicholas intended to resurrect
the glorious past.
On May 1795, Haydn's benefit concert
took place. So he left England, his
suitcase bulging with scores of music
written ... with presents and a well-
earned 1200 pound sterling - from
concerts and lessons, plus a considerable
income from other fees of appearances,
etc. Three years in England netted him
about 24000 florins.
Contemporaries described the new Prince
Nicholas as an 'Asiatic Despot'.
We know he was excessively arrogant to
Beethoven, whose brilliant Mass in C
major he found 'unbearable, ridiculous
Working for this 'nobleman' who was to
squander the family fortunes and kept a
temple dedicated to debauchery in
Vienna, was not easy for the composer,
who was now well into his sixties.
In London, Haydn once heard Handel's
Messiah, and burst out in tears at the
Baron von Swieten, his companion to
London, was fond of Handel to the point
where he considered it his mission to
propagate his music.
In 1795, Salomon gave Haydn an English
libretto on the subject of 'the Crea-
tion' , suggesting Haydn set it to music.
Its authorship remains a mystery.
According to Haydn, the idea came from a
certain Lindley, but he did not say that
this Lidley wrote the libretto. It is
perhaps Thomas Lidley, a promoter of
oratorios in London. Supposedly written
for Handel, this Libretto was written by
someone who knew his 'Milton' inside out.
Not only are whole lines quoted, but the
theme is constant 'Miltonic' as in ...
' Paradi se lost ' .
Haydn took it to Baron von Swieten, who
habitually held concerts in the magnif-
icent baroque hall of the Court library
of Vienna. Von Swieten had been Mozart's
patron, and engaged him to r eo r c he s t r a t e
various Handel oratorios for wind
instruments as the 'Library' had no
Von Swieten thus exposed Mozart to
baroque music. Beethoven, too was
patronized by him and dedicated to von
Swieten his first symphony.
The ever-cautious Haydn approached von
Swieten with this Libretto. Von Swieten
not only translated it in German, but got
together a group of music-loving noble-
men, who each put 50 ducats towards its
performance and most important, to pay
Haydn, for putting it to music.
The 'Creation' was performed in Vienna
on April 29, 1798. When he worked on it,
Haydn felt uplifted and remarked ...
"Never was I so devout ... I knelt down
every day and prayed to God to strengthen
me for my work." Guiseppe Carpani, the
Italian Poet, who translated the Creation
in Italian, remarked ... "When Haydn felt
his inspiration flagging, he 'rose' from
the piano forte and began to say his
rosary." ... "He never found this method
Haydn said later that during the
impressive performance, he was ... "as
cold as ice - the next moment -
on fire. More than once, I was
should have a stroke."
I s e emed
Here again, some would attempt to read
'masonry' into the libretto, to liken the
characters. Adam and Eve, with the
Papageno and Papagana of the Magic Flute
... therefore, it had to be masonic? As
to the music. Brother Webb writes:
"The Creation, both in its music and
the libretto, is of the same stuff as Die
Zauberflote and Fidelio, both by masonic
composers, representatives of a great
humantarian era in Central Europe, a
golden age of freedom, cultivation of
intellect and true sophistication, which
were soon to disappear forever,"
Lest we get carried away, the Creation
is based on Milton's 'Paradise Lost'
written well before 1717, around 1660.
It, in turn, was based on the fall of man
as reported in Genesis.
Die Zauberflote is an allegorical-
political comic opera, whereas Fidelio is
the product of a laborious struggle by
Beethoven to compose opera.
As for this 'golden age of freedom,
cultivation of intellect and true
sophistication, to disappear forever' •••
bl es sed be !
Beethoven, who criticised Mozart for
his Don Giovanni, as immoral, surely made
his point in the title of his one and
only opera 'Leonora or the Triumph of
eternal Love ' .
Its premier was on November 20, 1804,
one week after the French army occupied
Vienna. The house was full of French
officers and devoid of the nobility who
had fled in panic. The next two days
produced empty houses.
In 1814, or ten years later, attempts
were made to revive this opera. Remarked
Beethoven ... "I could compose something
new, far more quickly, than patch up the
old ... I have to think out the entire
work again ... this opera will win for me
the martyr's crown ...".
Haydn, in the year of his 'Creation*,
also composed a melody which would make
people stand up ••• bow their heads •••
and inspire either deep loyalty, raw hate
It was the music for the National
Anthem 'Gott Erhalte Franz dem Kaiser*
(God be with Franz the Emperor). Its text
came from a Jesuit, Lorenz Leopold
Haschka, who was professor off Aesthetics
at the Theresarium in Vienna. He was also
a freemason. It would remain The Austrian
National Anthem until 1939, at which
time, it became *Deutschland uber alles*
(Germany above all else). It also found
its way in hymn books under *Austria*.
In 1948, Austria adopted a new National
Anthem ••• the music is from Mozart*s
last composition to his lodge ... it was
written less than two months before his
death ... as a song to be sung at the
closing of a lodge.
Haydn proved himself a patriot until
the end. On May 12, 1809, the great
bombardment of Vienna started and a
cannonball fell with tremendous noise
near his house. Everyone trembled, not ,so
the old invalid, who exclaimed after the
uproar ... ** Children, fear not, where
Haydn is nothing can happen to you ...**.
Out of respect. Napoleon posted a guard
of honour outside Haydn * s door.
When the end came near, Haydn had
himself carried to the piano and there he
played the Austrian National Anthem three
times. It was his final play at the
piano. Within days, on May 31, he went
blissfully and gently to sleep to awake
no more .
At the impressive funeral service,
Mozart's Requiem was performed.
Beethoven, the man who arrived in
Vienna in 1792, would remain there all
His distrust of mankind was almost
notorious. He found patrons and friends,
such as Archduke Rudolph and Princes
Lichnowsky and Kinsky, yet he stood aloof
from society. Temperamentally, he was
never to be at ease. He moved from
landlady to another house forever
For a description of Beethoven, we will
let the diary of a Baron Kubeck von Kubau
speak . . . :
**The hero of music was a small man with
unkept, bristling hair with no powder,
which was unusual. He had a face deformed
by pox marks, small shining eyes, and a
continuous movement of every limb in his
body. Whoever sees him for the first time
will surely take him for a malicious,
ill-natured and quarrelsome drunkard ...
on the other hand, who sees him for the
first time surrounded by his fame and
glory, will surely see musical talent in
every feature of his face ...".
Beethoven matured during the upheavals
of the French Revolution, and he was, in
the words of Paul
The Herald of
the nineteenth century; the musical
prophet of willpower for whom music was
not only a pattern of sounds, nor even an
aural means of self expression; it was
also a moral and ethical power."
To describe him intimately, one would
need the elements of wind, thunder,
lightning reinforced with an inexhaust-
ible supply of sheer energy, poured in
the mold of a genius.
Beethoven chastized his friends, only
to profusely apologize. He appeared
untamed, yet locked in his music, the
peace of the country-side as well as the
rumblings of the battlefield and the
choirs of angels.
Beethoven grumbled and groaned, yet
carried his ill-health and deafness
alone, never ceasing to pour out music
for the benefit of mankind.
In 1802, as his deafness truly manifes-
ted itself, he wrote his Heilgenstadt
testament. Tragic, yet beautiful ...
"Oh ye men who regard or declare me
malignant, stubborn or cynical, how
unjust are ye towards me ... You do not
know the secret cause ... how humiliating
when someone standing close to me heard a
distant flute ... and I hear nothing, or
a shepherd singing ... and I hear nothing
... Forced already in my 28th year to
become a philosopher ... Patience, I am
told, I must choose as my guide ... O
divine being. Thou who lookest down into
my inmost soul. Thou unde r s t ande t h : Thou
Knowest that love for mankind and a
desire to do good dwell therein ... My
prayer is that your life may be better,
less troubled by cares ..."
He was to live another quarter century.
He was to write many masterpieces. He was
to suffer: hunger for love - and remain
1 one 1 y .
When the end came, it too, was torture.
On March 14, 1827, Beethoven, who had
so often raged against his condition,
wrote: "I am resigned and will accept
whatever fate may bring."
For three days, his powerful body
fought with the last terror and at five
o'clock on March 26, there was a loud
clap of thunder, Beethoven raised his
eyes and clenched his fist as if to say
"I defy you powers of evil! God is with
His final words to his friends were
"Plaudite Amici, Comaedia Finita est**
(Applaud my friends, the comedy is
f ini shed) .
Loved by the Gods ... As movies, such
as "Amadeus" and "Forgesse Mozart" reach
the market, together with dozens of
sensational books, it behooves us to take
a close look at some aspects of the man.
We hear much about the so-called
* Basle ' letters .
Basically, we deal with all of nine
letters (1779-1781), to his cousin Maria
Anna Thekla Mozart, nicknamed Basle or
little cousin. The childish obscenities
are few in number and of that bathroom
ilk, which mark the humour of the times
and the Mozart Family; witness the
letters from his mother to father Mozart.
Nowhere in these letters appears any
sign of blasphemies which are so common
in today's daily conversation. The
letters are worthy of reading. Here is an
excerpt from a letter to "little cousin":
"Now, one day a shepherd was walking,
along with 11,000 sheep ... in his hand,
he held a stick with a beautiful rose-
coloured ribbon ... it was his habit to
. af t er he
had walked for a good hour or so, he got
tired and sat down near a river ... he
fell asleep and dreamt that he had lost
his sheep .
In terror, he awoke ... only to find
all 11,000 sheep beside him ... So he got
up and walked on ... but not for long for
he came to a bridge ... which was very
long, but well protected from both sides
to prevent people from falling into the
river. Well, he looked at his flock and
as he was obliged to cross the river, he
began to drive his eleven thousand sheep
over the bridge. Now, please be so kind
as to wait until the eleven thousand
sheep have reached the other side and
then I shall finish my story ..."
When I read the story, I recalled that
at age 14, Mozart was knighted by the
Pope ... and that unlike Gluck, he never
availed himself of either the title or
the influence attached to it. At that
same visit to Rome, his hostess presented
that book .
the 'Arabian Night's' (in
It looks as if Mozart did read
Mozart Prepares Himself for Death
He wrote to his father Leopold in his
letter of April 4, 1787:
"I hear you are really ill! ... As
death, when we come to consider it
closely, is the true goal of our exis-
tence, I have formed during the last few
years such close relations with this best
and truest friend of mankind, that his
image is not only no longer terrifying to
me, but is indeed very soothing and
consoling! And I thank my God for
graciously granting me the opportunity
(you know what I mean) of learning that
death is the KEY which unlocks the door
to our true happiness. I never lie down
at night without reflecting that - young
as I am - I may not live to see another
day. Yet, no one of all my acquaintances
could say that in company I am morose or
disgruntled. For this blessing, I daily
thank my Creator and wish with all my
heart that each one of my fellow creat-
ures could enjoy it."
There can be no question that Mozart,
in this letter, referred to the degrees
known to both father and son.
It has been said that the cautious
Leopold destroyed some of Mozart's
letters as they may have touched upon
the, in Bavaria, forbidden subject of
Alfred Einstein, anauthority on
Mozart, notes that to Mozart Catholicism
and Freemasonry were like concentric
moment examine just what
could be concentric and in what circle.
To the Catholic, stripped from dogmas
and infallible papal teachings, there
remains the centre ... Christ*s presence
in the Eucharist surrounded by the Virgin
Such is the mysticism of the Catholic
faith in and around the centre.
Mozart was quite familiar with this.
In Masonry, he found himself once more
in the centre ... in a different way, yet
in each obligation uttering the same
solemn words "I in the presence of,
followed by the name of the supreme
The administrators of the Catholic
faith held little awe for Mozart or his
father. His dad, Leopold, was educated by
Jesuits. Leopold himself, no one else,
taught Mozart mathematics of which he was
fond to the extent of scribbling formulas
and figures all over the house ... he
taught him Latin, French and Italian,
plus music. Leopold himself was no mean
musician and had written a treatise on
violin playing which was respected across
The Faith itself was a different matter
and Mozart, in his letters, refers often
to the punctual following of obligatory
pr ac t i c e s .
In his lodge were over fourteen
priests, some Jesuits, even though Maria-
Therese had banned the order in the early
1740 • s .
Before Mozart, there was no Masonic
music ... there were masonic songs, but
nothing of a musical nature to distin-
guish it from any other composer's
compo s i t i on •
Today, we may well be baffled by
utterings such as by Alfred Einstein that
"Mozart created his own masonic musical
symbolism: the rhythm of the three knocks
and the slurring of two notes, symbol-
izing the ties of friendship (Gesellen-
reise K.468), or the progressive PARALLEL
THIRDS THAT CHARACTERIZE THE SONG FOR
ADJOURNING THE MEETING (K.623)o
We may not understand how, a professor
Chailley or a Roger Cote, find definite
masonic traces in some of Beethoven's
works. We must record that these experts
did decipher the language of music and
projected it on a system of morality.
We all know that in his last year
Mozart wrote a (some say his own)
Requiem. We are aware of the Magic Flute
and maybe even the of the last cantata
written for his Lodge, which proved
Mozart's last ever public appearance.
There is, however, a priceless small
Motet, which remains much ignored.
In mid summer of 1791, Mozart composed
this small Motet for four voices and
strings, named the 'Ave Verum'. It was
probably to be used in the 'Corpus
Christi* service by the school teacher
and choir leader Anton Stoll, in Baden
near Vienna. He had performed other
church works of Mozart and Michael Haydn
and kept an eye on Constanze, a bit.
The text confirms our theory of
concentric circles ... it reads trans-
lated from Latin ... "Greetings, to you,
born of the Virgin Mary: to You who has
truly suffered and was sacrificed for
humanity on a cross. Be for us a last
meal, in the final examination of death."
Whereas the text
song, confirms it ..
doubt as to Mozart'
, taken from an old
. the music leaves no
s intentions. It was
his f inal
' prayer '
His death appears to have been wit-
nessed by Constanze, by Sussmayer and
Sophie, Constanze's sister and perhaps
the old factotum Deiner. His doctor,
Thomas Franz Closset, was last on the
Whether he leaned his head against the
wall and puffed up his cheeks to imitate
the trumpet of his Requiem ... Tuba Mirum
spargens sonum ... a miraculous trumpet
shall spread its sound ... we shall never
know for sure .
We know that his rich masonic patron
'Baron von Swieten', ordered a pauper's
funeral ... in an unmarked grave ...
which has never been found.
Speculation about the cause of death
keeps tilling books and movie houses*
A few days after his funeral, an
elaborate memorial ceremony was held at
the 'Newly Crowned Hope Lodge' . The Grand
Master Karl Friedrich Hensler delivered
the eulogy, from which we quote:
"It has pleased the Eternal Architect
of the World to separate from our
fraternal chain the most beloved and
meritorious of its members. Who did not
know him? Who did not esteem him? Who did
not love our worthy brother Mozart? Only
a few weeks ago, he was still among us
and exalted with his enchanted sounds the
dedication of our Masonic Temple.
Mozart's premature death represents an
irreplaceable loss for the Art.
His talents, already expressed in early
boyhood, made him even then the rarest
phenomenon of his generation: half of
Europe revered him, the Great called him
their favorite, and we called him our
Brotherly love, a peaceable disposi-
tion, support of good causes, ... these
were the chief characteristics of his
nature ... He was a husband, a father, a
friend to his friends, a brother to his
brothers . "
We have tried to give you a glimpse of
three giants, of which two, for sure,
were masons. Their memories linger ...
their music lives forever.
History is but to create enthusiasm ...
so ... let's keep our candles burning ...
with the prudent wisdom of a Haydn, with
the indomitable strength of a Beethoven
and with the timeless beauty of a Mozart.
THE VIENNA TRIAD
* * *
The following books were consulted in
the preparation of this paper.
Frances Carr: The Complete Operas of
Marcia Davenport: Mozart*
Alfred Einstein: Mozart - His Character,
Wolfgang Hildesheimer (Translated from
German by Marion Farber): Mozart.
Arthur Hutchings: Mozart - The Man, The
Paul Henry Laing: The Creative World of
Herbert Kupherberg: Amadeus - A. Mozart-
W.A. Mozart (Introduced and Translated by
Ellen H. Bleiler): Mozart * s Don Giovanni.
W.A. Mozart (Edited by Emily Anderson):
The Letters of Mozart and His Family.
Peggy Woodford: The Illustrated Lives of
Great Composers - Mozart.
H.C. Robbins Landon & Donald Mitchel,
Editors, with contributions by - Gerald
Abraham, Friedrich Blume, Otto Erich
Deutsch, Hans Engel, Karl Gelringer, Paul
Hamburger, Arthur Hutchings, Hans Keller,
H.C. Robbins Landon, Jens Peter Larson,
and Donald Mitchel: The Mozart Companion.
R.M. James: Beethoven.
Joseph Kerman & Allan Tyson: The New
Ates Orga : The Illustrated Lives of Great
Composers - Beethoven.
Denis Arnold & Nigel Fortune, Editors,
with contributions by - Denis Arnold,
Elsie Arnold, Philip Barford, Winton
Dean, Basil Dean, Nigil Fortune, Denis
McCalden, Derek Melville, Leslie Orrey,
Robert Simpson, Harold Truscott, and Alan
Tyson: The Beethoven Companion.
Neil Butterworth: The Illustrated Lives
of Great Composers - Haydn.
Jens Peter Larson with Georg Feder: The
New Grove Haydn.
Karl Geiringer: A Great Creative Life in
Mus ic .
OTHER SOURCES CONSULTED
ARS Quatuor Cor ona t or um : Transactions of
the Quator Coronati Lodge No. 2076;
Volumes 84, 89, 90 and 94.
: The New American Encyclopedia.
: Encyclopedia Britannica.
Tryon Edwards: The New Dictionary of
Adrien Fauchier Magnan : Les Peties Courts
D*Allemagne Au XVII erne Siecle.
David Mason Green: Green*s Biographical
Encyclopedia of Composers.
Kent Henderson: Masonic World Guide.
Michael Kennedy: The Oxford Dictionary of
J. Merrill Knapp : The Magic of The Opera.
Paul Henry Lang: The Experience of Opera.
Norman Lebrecht: The Book of Music
Eugene Lennhoff : The Freemason.
Peter A. Scholes: The Oxford Companion to
Yehudi Menuhin & Curtis A. Davis: The
Mus ic of Man .
Eathan Morddin: Opera Anecdotes,
Simon & Schuster: The Simon & Schuster
Book of the Opera.
REVIEW OF PAPER PRESENTED TO
THE HERITAGE LODGE
September 17, 1986
W.Bro. John M. Boersma, titled
THE VIENNA TRIAD
This 'review' was prepared by R.W.Bro.
Wallace E. McLeod, Charter Member of The
Heritage Lodge, and read in lodge by
W.Bro. James Major.
Worshipful Master and Brethren:
I must begin by apologizing to the
Lodge, and to my good friend W.Bro. John
Boersma, that I am not present to hear
his paper. By way of excuse I plead the
necessity of attending the convocation of
King Cyrus Chapter, Royal Arch Masons, of
which I am an officer.
Bro. Boersma' s knowledge, his dili-
gence, his energy, and his enthusiasm,
are familiar to all who know him, and are
particularly well demonstrated in his
paper this evening. He has cast his net
wide, and in addition to outlining the
lives of these three great composers he
has tried to sketch the background
against which they moved. He includes a
tremendous amount of detail, and for my
part I suspect that the audience would
have found it somewhat easier to follow
if his scope had been
bit more restric-
Over the years Bro. Boersma and I have
had several 'full and frank discussions'
(as the politicians put it) on Masonic
matters, and I know that he would not
want me to paper over any points of
disagreement between us. Actually, I have
only several small corrections, and one
or two points that might have been added.
To begin with, the first Royal Freemason,
Francis Duke of Lorraine, was initiated
t in 1735, but in 1731, probably lat
in September or early in . „,^..
though he did become Holy Roman Emperor
in 1745, he was not a Hapsburg, except by
marriage. By a curious mischance, Bro.
Boersma says that the Emperor Leopold was
Francis's father; actually Leopold died
three years before Francis was born.
Haydn's magnificent testimony to
Mozart's genius, "I ... tell you before
God that your son is the greatest
composer I know," was spoken on Saturday,
12 February 1785. This was the very next
day after Haydn had been initiated into
Freemasonry, and it would be pleasant to
imagine that, in some way, the generous
spirit of the gentle Craft had inspired
the tribute. Alas, it cannot be. "The
masonic ceremonial to which Haydn had
looked forward with keen anticipation
touched no chord in his heart and ... he
took no further steps in his lodge, lost
interest and soon forgot all about it"
(Bro. Frederick H. Smyth, AQC 94, 1981,
pp. 74-5). Ten years later, as Bro.
Boersma notes, the composer refused to
take part in a benefit concert at
Freemason's Hall, London. Haydn was not,
we conclude, a devoted Mason.
With regard to Beethoven, despite the
eloquent letter from the Grand Lodge of
France, I must agree with Bro. Boersma
that there is no convincing evidence that
he was a Freemason. The selection of: a
this or that musical key, the choice of a
particular set of instruments, the use of
a special rhythm or musical 'symbol' , the
decision to write a long or short piece-
- - none of these, in default of real
documentation, provide sufficient reason
to recognize Masonic affinities. Beet-
hoven, we conclude, did not belong to the
No, the only serious Mason of the triad
was Mozart. I should have liked to have
seen a more orderly presentation of his
Masonic career, his initiation on 14
December 1784, and the rest. But perhaps
Bro. Boersma feels that this topic has
been done to death. One could cite for
example Bro. Peter de Karwin's popular
multi-media presentation, "Whom the Gods
Love ...," summarized in the Proceedi ngs
of this Lodge, volume 7 (1983-4), pp. 20-
23. It might have been useful (without in
any way endorsing their conclusions) to
refer to three other fairly recent books,
in case some Brethren wish to pursue the
Masonic connection further: Jacques
Chailley, The Magic Flute: Masonic Opera
(New York, 1971); Katharine Thomson, The
Masonic Thread in Mozart (London, 1977);
H.C. Robbims Landon, Mozart and the
Masons (London, 1982). I forbear to
enlarge on the topic, except to say that
I now think that there is much less
Freemasonry in 'The Magic Flute' than is
generally alleged, and than I personally
used to believe.
Bro. Boersma mentions two recent movies
that deal with Mozart. He might also have
mentioned a musical selection that is
quite popular among the younger genera-
tion: *Rock Me, Amadeus' by the Austrian
rock star Falco (1985). It includes a
brief *voice over' biography that
mentions the Masonic connection.
Let me once again thank the speaker of
the evening, W.Bro. John Boersma, for
reminding us of three men of genius, for
setting out their Masonic connections,
for showing us some of the places and
people associated with them, and above
all for letting us hear a little of their
Response to R.W.Bro. McLeod's Review
W.Bro. John Boersma
His kind remarks we have graciously
The errors pointed out we have correc-
We are mostly in agreement with the
other comments made, however, with regard
to Joseph Haydn we quote from AQC 94-
pp. 77, Bro. C.F.W. Dyer ... "Bro. Webb
attempts, it seems, to excuse Haydn
because he did not attend or belong to a
Lodge. This is unfortunately to fall into
a common trap and apply the principles
and practice of today in England to 200
years ago in Austria and Hungary. Even in
those days in England it was not unusual
and not necessarily important, nor was
taking the two further degrees regarded
as essential ... even the closing down of
lodges did not mean that the brethren
were not practicing - merely not meeting
or making masons . . . '*
I sense more than I can today prove
that we shall unearth much more about
these three members of The Vienna Triad.
We are grateful to R.W.Bro. McLeod for
his mentioning of 'Rock me Amadeus* etc.
We owe R.W.Bro. McLeod a vote of thanks
for taking out the time and effort to
comment on this paper.
John Boer sma
THE UNIVERSITY, AND MORAL VALUES**
V.W.Bro. Burton Clare Matthews
It is a great privilege for me to be
invited to speak at The Heritage Lodge
Third Annual Banquet. This is partic-
ularly so as I note that your speakers on
two previous occasions were such eminent
men and masons Right Worshipful
Brother Allan Leal and Brother The
Honourable John Matheson.
I thank R.W.Bro. Pos for a most
gracious and generous introduction.
I have found, on occasion, that the
remarks used to introduce and thank
speakers often contain nuggets of humour
or perceptive insight. Some years ago, as
a member of our local Brotherhood of
Anglican Churchmen, I was asked to
present a cheque to St. Monica's House to
assist in its support of unwed mothers.
On the appointed day, I arrived at the
home to find residents gathered in the
living room. Following my brief remarks
and the presentation, a young mother-to-
be arose and somewhat nervously began an
Paper presented at the Third
Annual Heritage Banguet of Heritage
Lodge, held in the Visitors Centre, Black
Creek Pioneer Village, Toronto, 29
expression of thanks. But as she pro-
ceeded she became increasingly enthus-
iastic in her expression of gratitude
ending her remarks by saying, "In fact,
if it were not for the men in the
Brotherhood of Anglican Churchmen, some
of us would not be here."
Although The Heritage Lodge is rela-
tively new, it is unique among masonic
lodges in its founding aims and object-
ives which place special emphasis on
preserving the history - the Heritage of
Masonry. The aims and objectives of The
Heritage Lodge present a challenge and an
opportunity that are unique and exciting.
I commend the lodge on its success in
these few short years in fulfilling those
aims and objectives.
I know, of course, that as in every
human endeavour we often fall short of
our objectives and sometimes as we look
back on any given year we wonder if we
have made any progress at all. But even
small steps forward are worth noting.
Two chaps from St. John's decided to go
hunting for moose in Northern
Newfoundland. They chartered a plane to
fly them in with all their gear, landing
on a remote lake. When they arrived the
pilot promised to return the next
Saturday to pick them up. At the same
time he warned them to shoot only one
moose because the small plane could not
take off with the two hunters, all their
gear and any more than one moose.
So the following Saturday, on schedule,
the pilot returned and found the hunters
and all of their gear and two dead moose.
The pilot reminded them again that he
could not take off with that heavy load.
But the hunters argued that they had
flown in last year with the same plane
but a different pilot and he had agreed
to take off with the two hunters, all of
their gear and two moose.
Finally, the pilot agreed. They loaded
up and took off down the lake but as the
plane lifted it caught the tops of some
trees and crashed.
As the smoke cleared, one of the
hunters lying on the ground, revived,
blinked and looked around to see his
buddy leaning against the tree amidst the
wreckage. The chap on the ground said,
"where are we?" the other answered,
"about 100 yards further than last year."
As I considered the remarks 1 might
make tonight, my mind dwelt on the name
"Heritage" and I kept returning to the
heritage of masonry and the heritage of
I began to recognize the similarities
of the two Institutions in their origins,
based on religious concepts, their common
emphasis on knowledge, and the moral
values that arise from the endless search
So I will speak to you for a few
moments on these matters.
The first universities were established
more than 900 years ago by religious
organizations in Europe. At a much more
recent date, universities were estab-
lished in Canada, also by religious
denominations. Almost all of them arose
out of religious controversy. In fact,
the first university college established
in Canada was King's College in Windsor,
Nova Scotia, in 1789. It was established
by Anglicans who later founded two more
King's Colleges, one in Toronto, Ontario,
in 1827 and one in Fredericton, New
Brunswick, in 1829.
The Anglicans made every attempt to
make these three colleges strongholds of
their religion and this led, of course,
to bitter controversy over grants of
support from the public purse. The
Anglicans also insisted that all of their
professors be Anglicans and all students
subscribe to the 39 articles of the
Church of England. In lower Canada this
controversy led to the establishment of a
non-denominational college by Lord
Dalhousie but by the time Dalhousie
(1818) actually opened its doors, the
Presbyterians had insisted on appointing
all the professors, whereupon the
Baptists set off to establish Acadia
University (1838) (its first principal
being a professor who had been rejected
by Dalhousie), and the Methodists set up
Mount Allison (1858) on the border of
Nova Scotia and New Brunswick to serve
both provinces. The Scottish Catholics
opened St. Xavier (1853) in Antigonish,
the French speaking Catholics, College
Saint Anne, and the Irish Catholics, St.
Mary's University (1841) in Halifax.
In Ontario, the impact of the church on
the development of universities is
equally evident. Conflict arose immedi-
ately because King's College in Toronto
held firm for the Anglican faith through
Bishop Strachan. But the dissenters held
the majority in the legislature. And so,
because of lack of funds, it was sixteen
years before King's College would open.
In the meantime, the Methodists had
established Victoria College in Cobourg
and Albert College in Belleville. The
Presbyterians had set up Queen's Univers-
ity (1841) in Kingston where the
Catholics had also established a College,
later to become the University of
Regiopolis in 1866. It closed three years
later in 1869.
Conflict continued until 1849, when
King's College became the non-denomin-
ational provincial university of Toronto.
But by that time the Bishop of Huron, in
disagreement with Bishop Strachan,
founded a rival Huron College in London
and it became one of the elements of the
University of Western Ontario (1878). The
Baptists had also founded their colleges
in Woodstock and Toronto which later
became McMaster University (1887).
Today, the Universities in Ontario are
all wards of the State -- no longer under
the protective shadow of the church, a
situation which some view with great
alarm. Cardinal Newman, for example,
observed that one could not assume that
the modern university, with secularist
attitude and teaching, could also provide
a basis for morality.
I do not hold to this view. On the
contrary, I believe that the university
can and does, indeed, nourish a set of
values and habits of mind that are
central to a morality of life.
Masonry and the university have
traditionally honoured knowledge even
though society, generally, has only
recently paid much respect to knowledge.
The university, which is devoted to
knowledge, has a long-standing commitment
to moral values. Masonry and the univers-
ity are thus conjoined in the great task
of serving mankind.
When I became a mason, I was immediat-
ely impressed by the fact that masonry
gives such pride of place to knowledge
and to truth — and that it has done so
throughout the ages. This "beautiful
system of morality" constantly reminds us
of the intimate relationship between
knowledge and moral precepts.
Have you ever counted the number of
times in masonry that reference is made
to knowledge and to learning? some
exampl es :
-"knowledge grounded on accuracy,
aided by labour and promoted by
-"the paths of virtue and of
-"make the liberal arts and
sciences your future study"
-"extend your researches into the
hidden mysteries of nature and
It is remarkable that masonry should
have accorded such honour and respect to
knowledge when one considers that it is
only in recent times» within this
century, in fact, that knowledge, as
such, has commanded a real respect in
s o c i e t y - a t - 1 a r ge • Society has tradit-
ionally revered the products of knowledge
but not always knowledge itself. Two
hundred years ago the industrial revolut-
ion exploded upon the world, based on new
machines and on new products of all kinds
which served to make men*s lives more
comfortable. More than that, knowledge is
one of the prime bases for the social
wealth which we enjoy.
Kenneth Galbraith has said, "In the
eighteenth century and the millennia
before that, wealth in all civilized
society was largely expressed in land. In
the nineteenth century, capital replaced
land as the decisive factor in economic
success." He goes on to argue that in
this century knowledge itself has become
the decisive factor and the high estate
of knowledge in our society is a reflect-
ion of that fact. As Claud Bissel, a
former President of the University of
Toronto, has remarked, "today, knowledge
commands great respect and its possessors
command increasingly high financial
The university has always played a
central role in the development and
dissemination of knowledge in atomic
energy, the computer and the magic of
electronics, the biochemistry of life
itself and the genetic manipulation of
organisms both large and small.
The university also plays a major role
in educating more and more people
people who recognize that knowledge is a
necessary and useful commodity in today's
world. For these reasons and others,
governments in Canada have, during the
last thirty years, allocated massive
amounts of money to the support of
For example, in 1950, there were only
five universities in the province of
Ontario — all of them small and largely
independent of government sources of
funds. But during the 1950*s, the demand
for knowledge, as evidenced by increasing
numbers of people who wanted to attend
university, encouraged the government to
allocate more and more money to the
support of po s t - s econda r y education. By
1964, there were fifteen universities in
Ontario supported from the public purse
to the extent of $250 million per year.
In 1986, more than 1.5 billion dollars
was spent by government in support of the
university system in Ontario.
The university today is, therefore,
very much in the public domain and a
central force in the material progress of
our society and our nation. Yet, it
retains a traditional commitment to moral
values which derives, in part, from the
fact that it arose 900 years ago from
within the christian church and until
recent times has been closely associated
with the church.
The twin columns which support a modern
university and lead to these values are
science and humanistic studies. The
pursuit of science and of humanistic
study demonstrates and inculcates moral
values that are important to man's lives
— values that should guide the lives of
everyone of us.
The methods of science are based on the
simple proposition that knowledge can be
verified or tested experimentally. So»
the scientific method teaches us to
honour truth — to acknowledge facts even
when our emotions are deeply stirred —
to accept facts even when we might wish
to believe otherwise. While ultimate
truth may escape us, we must learn to
conduct our lives in the light of
revealed truth, to subordinate our
opinions and wishes to objective evidence
if we are to avoid fundamental error.
For example, the study of human
genetics and human races has revealed a
basic truth which, if accepted by all
men, should prevent the racial and other
discrimination that appears so many times
and in so many places today, and not just
in far away places. Different colours of
skin and different traditions are
superficial by comparison with the truth
of the a 1 1 - pe r V a s i ve similarities that
bind the human family together. Hitler
said blacks cannot do that, yet they
could; he said Jews were not capable of
this, yet they were; he said women were
inferior to men, and they are not. In a
culture where the truth shows that such
statements are without foundation, men's
prejudices must fall away.
Secondly, the scientific method teaches
us the value of s e 1 f -d i s c i p 1 i ne through
the discipline exhibited by nature — in
physics, in chemistry, in biology. We see
it in a blade of grass, a drop of water,
a crystal — all of these are part of the
perfection of the universe. As Confucius
put it, "order is heaven's only law."
More recently. Lord Beaverbrook, in his
book. Don't Trust to Luck , wrote that man
"can only keep his judgement intact, his
nerves sound and his mind secure by the
process of self-discipline." Self-
discipline does not mean the straight-
jacket of conformity. There must be
leeway for the exercise of responsible
judgement and freedom of decision. While
nature displays order, she displays that
order within a range of acceptable
limits. S e 1 f -d i s c i p 1 i ne requires us to
display that same range of quality.
Thirdly, the scientific method teaches
us humility — to subordinate one's own
hopes and desires to the demands of
reality. Thomas Henry Huxley, a great
biological scientist, emphasized this
quality of humanity in a letter to
Charles Kingsley. "Science," he wrote,
"seems to me to teach in the highest and
strongest manner the great truth which is
embodied in the christian conception of
entire surrender to the will of God. Sit
down before a fact, as a little child, be
prepared to give up every preconceived
notion. Follow humbly wherever and to
whatever abyss nature leads or you shall
learn nothing. I have only begun to learn
contentment and peace of mind since I
have resolved at all risks to do this."
From humility comes tolerance, and
without humility one cannot give credence
to the opinion of others. The virtue of
tolerance is sorely needed in the world
of today a world in which so many
people seem unwilling or uninterested to
acknowledge the rights of others who
cherish a different culture or who may,
at times, walk a different pace.
Fourthly, the scientific method teaches
us optimism and perseverance. The history
of the pursuit of knowledge, whether of
the internal structure of the atom or of
the active agent causing cancer, amply
illustrates that nature does not reveal
her secrets easily. Yet, if man is
persistent and doggedly pursues her, he
does eventually uncover more and more of
the hidden mysteries. Everyone of us to
be a successful seeker after truth and to
live a life of moral value, must display
a spirit of indomitable perseverance.
Every worthwhile achievement requires
persistence and courage in the face of
frustrations. Pasteur said, "My only
strength lies in my tenacity."
Optimism and perseverance allow us to
accept failure as a part of life — not
the end of life.
These moral values — To honour truth,
to practice se 1 f -di scipl ine , humility and
tolerance, optimism and perseverance —
which arise from the secular pursuit of
scientific knowledge, are not a soft set
of rules. They represent a stern morality
calling to mind the old testament
morality of truth, justice and integrity.
These, of course, are not the whole of
the morality that we as masons all
profess to admire. The other column that
supports the university, the humanistic
study, offers still more.
Humanism is concerned with the cultiva-
tion of certain attitudes of mind that
grow out of the study of the great
classics of literature, history and
philosophy. It teaches us that not all of
the great insights come from systematic
persistence and diligence, that some of
the greatest insights come to the minds
of a few rare individuals in flashes of
br i 1 1 i ance .
Humanism teaches us to be suspicious of
utilitarianism as the only criterion of
worth and encourages us to be constructi-
vely cautious in our attitude toward
progress and improvement.
Finally, humanistic study teaches us
the value of human love and the virtues
that arise from it the virtue of
kindness and charity toward others
loyalty and respect within the family.
THE CHALLENGE OF TO-MORROW
And so the university and masonry are
at one in their search for knowledge and
moral values. The Masonic Foundation of
Ontario, through bursaries for university
students and in its support of research
on multiple sclerosis and its contri-
butions to deafness research, is a
practical example of masonic commitment
to education and research.
But the extra challenge facing the
university and masonry is clear. The
moral values of truth and justice,
humility and tolerance, perseverance
sustained by optimism, love, and charity
have always been at risk but never more
so than today.
In the seventies, man's knowledge of
this world and his ability to manipulate
it have increased remarkably. Yet, as the
decade ended, critics and pundits seemed
unanimous in the view that society today
faces a crisis of the human spirit. They
disagreed as to the causes — and some of
the effects television, excessive
affluence, permissiveness, feminism or
simply a resentment that the expectations
of the sixties had not been fulfilled, or
even more dispiriting, the unspoken
belief that another depression is not
only inevitable, but even imminent.
As Richard Gwyn has written, "The vogue
phrase was, 'The New Narcissism'.
"Narcissism meant ••• the cuisinarting of
Canada, designer jeans, gucci shoes, the
hot tub instead of the cold shower, male
cosmetics as the new growth industry, and
psychiatrists getting asked on talk shows
about sexual anorexia instead of about
frigidity or impotence."
The best-sellers of the seventies bore
titles like Winning Through Intimidation:
Be Your Own Best Friend . The seventies'
people were self-centred — se 1 f -as ser t i -
veness and s e 1 f - ac t ua 1 i z a t i on and self-
awareness and self-fulfillment as the
imperatives (the be-all and end-all) of
personal behaviour. They also experienced
self -despai r .
There are a few bulwarks against such
private demons the church, the
universities and institutions such as
masonry. Precisely because they are so
few, their responsibility is great*
While the growth of knowledge about our
world has extended our material comforts
— has relieved suffering in many, but
not all, parts of the world — the growth
of knowledge about ourselves, and our use
of it, has been less impressive. Perhaps
this is because the lessons of humanism,
the moral precepts that should guide and
direct our actions, must be learned anew
by each generation. In any event, the
problems of interpersonal relationships,
self-despair and the fragmentation of the
family, present a new dimension of human
conflict — the conflict of the spirit.
This is the new environment in which
our institution of masonry and the
university now find themselves. The
effectiveness of both depends on the
leadership and dedication of all of us
who count ourselves as members.
So the university, first under ecclesi-
astical sponsorship and now with massive
secular support, constantly nourishes
those basic moral values that make men's
lives worthwhile. In that sense the
university is at one with masonry whose
"every character, figure, and emblem has
a moral tendency."
As we go forward, let us remember that,
as times change, so must our institutions
change. Let us, by all means, hold to
that which is good from the past but let
us not be afraid to adjust creatively
within ourselves and our institutions to
resolve the new problems and opportunit-
ies that now face the human race.
Let me close with the words of Abraham
Lincoln in his second annual message to
Congress in December, 1862. I have
recalled these words many times when
faced with difficult decisions. They
contain an admonition — an admonition
that one can apply in one's personal
life, in our masonic craft, in our public
or private avocations and in the resolut-
ions of the problems currently facing our
na t ions •
"The dogmas of the quiet past are
inadequate to the stormy present.
The occasion is piled high with
difficulty and we must rise to the
occasion. As our case is new, so
we must think and act anew."
b e r
Brethren, even as we remem___
celebrate the richness of our heritage,
let us go forward with renewed enthusi-
asm, sustained by the traditions of our
nstitutions, and find in every diffi-
ulty a new opportunity. "Such should be
the nature of our institutions."
Burton C. Matthews
WORSHIPFUL BROTHER JOSEPH BRANT***
Bro. William W. Mitchell,
B.A., M.Sc.Ed., D . Bus . Admin
There have been a number of great men
who, history has informed us, have begun
their lives on this earth in a very
*lowly' manner, and have risen to great
heights of achievements. Worshipful
Brother Joseph Brant was one of these who
had a very insignificant beginning in
this world. He was a native Indian, who
achieved greatness, and whose name has
been passed down through the years, and
his name is kept alive in our midst by
his name being used to designate a
County, a Township, a City, Streets,
Avenues, a Hospital, a Museum, a Masonic
District, and a Masonic Lodge.
Between 1700 and 1760, the home of the
Iroquois Confederacy was in an area of
what is now known as New York State -
west from the Hudson River, and south
from Lake Ontario to Tioga Point, and the
Mohawk Valley was one of its principle
* * *
Paper presented at the Regular
Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in the
Brantford Masonic Temple, Brantford,
Wednesday, March 11, 1987.
The prized hunting lands of the
Iroquois was in what is now the State of
Ohio. It was the custom to station
hunters there to keep a supply of meat
and skins flowing back to their home
land, to be used for food and clothing;
and to also act as an advance 'warning
system' of any enemy approaching from
that direction. Many adventurous couples
in their early married life, went there
for a few years before they settled down
in the tribal lands in the Mohawk Valley.
Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant's young
parents were in Ohio when his sister,
Molley or Deyonwadonte was born in 1737,
and they were still there on November 24,
1742 when Joseph, or T h a y e nd a n e g e a was
born. This Indian name given to Joseph
had the meaning 'two sticks of wood bound
together' , which was a mohawk symbol of
s t r eng t h .
While growing up in Ohio, Joseph was
educated in the traditional manner of an
Iroquois brave. As a Mohawk, a member of
the proudest tribe in the powerful
Iroquois Confederacy, he learned the rich
heritage of his ancestors. He learned the
practical lessons of hunting, wood lore,
and the skills of war, on which his
future life would depend.
Brant returned to the Mohawk Valley
with his family when he was 8 years of
age, only to find that many Europeans had
settled on the land that had previously
been occupied by members of the Iroquois
Confederacy, and this was a most pro-
voking condition to the Indians, as they
considered this was their land.
After Joseph's father d i e d » his mother
married an Indian with the Christian name
of Brant, and so Joseph became known as
'Brant's Joseph' and 'Joseph Brant'.
Joseph learned to read and write in a
settler's school which had been started
at Canajoharie, and later attended school
at Fort Hunter.
Naturally Joseph's life had first of
all been influenced by his immediate
family, but his Masonic activities were
influenced by a number of people with
whom he became associated with during his
lifetime. The most influential person
appears to have been Sir William Johnson,
an Irishman, who became the superinten-
dent of Indian Affairs. Sir William was
highly respected by the Indians, and he
studied their language, and became quite
eloquent in the Indian tongue. So high
was the estimation of Sir William by the
Indians, that they made him a Chief, and
he was given the Indian name of 'Warrag-
hiyageh', said to mean 'Chief of Af-
fairs', or 'Man of Business'.
Sir William Johnson was influential in
having his nephew Guy Johnson come from
Ireland to this New World. Guy and Joseph
attended the same school, where they
became great friends.
Later, it was quite probable that Sir
William Johnson went to Union Lodge //I,
at Albany, and became a member there, on
April 10» 1766, with the ulterior purpose
of being able to establish a Lodge at
Johnson Hall in Johnstown, and that Guy
Johnson, Col. Glaus, and John Butler also
became members of Union Lodge //I on this
same date, likely to insure the success
of this project.
The first Charter or Warrant of
Constitution of St Patrick's Lodge //8, to
be held at Johnson Hall, Johnstown, in
the County of Albany, in the Province of
New York in America, was issued on May
23, 1766 by the Provincial Grand Master
of the Province of New York in America,
R.W.Bro. George Harison. Named in this
warrant as the first Officers of the
Lodge were: Sir William Johnson, as
Master; Guy Johnson, Esq. as the Senior
Warden; Daniel Claus, Esq. as Junior
Warden, and John Butler, Esq. as the
Seer e tar y •
Samuel Kirkland was another close
associate of Joseph Brant. He was a New
England youth, who was a fellow student
of Joseph Brant while attending Moor's
Mission School. Later he became a
Congregational Missionary to the Oneidas.
Gilbert Tice, entered as Member //5 on
the By-Laws of St. Patrick's Lodge on May
23, 1766, was one of those who accom-
panied Brant and Guy Johnson on their
visit to England in 1776.
It should be also noted here that Sir
William Johnson's third wife was Joseph
Brant's sister 'Molly', and they were
married in 1760.
In 1755, the conflict between the
French and English expanded into North
America, and many engagements took place
on Iroquois Confederacy lands. A large
number of Indians took up arms on the
side of the English
protect their lands.
At the age of thirteen. Brant accom-
panied Sir William Johnson to Lake
George, where he took part in the Battle
of Crown Point. The Indians and the
British continued the war to the
successful conclusion for them, defeating
the French in 1763, and so secured their
claims to North America. At the age of
nineteen, and influenced no doubt by Sir
William Johnson, Brant enrolled in Moor's
Indian Charity Mission School at New
Lebanon in Connecticut, U.S.A., which was
operated by Reverend Eleazar Wheelock,
(Moor's School was the forerunner of the
present Dartmouth College). Brant was
older than most of the other students,
but he studied hard, and at the time that
he left this school, he was assisting
with the instruction of other students.
After leaving school, he settled at
Canajoharie, where he divided his time
between farming, and leading his Indian
followers in assisting the British cause
in the struggle against the French, which
was still persisting to some extent.
Joseph married Christine (or Owase),
the daughter of Sauquoit (or Antone, as
the Dutch at Albany called him). Sauquoit
was a Chief of the Oneidas, and acted as
their interpreter. The marriage ceremony
of Christine and Joseph was first carried
out in the customary manner of the
Indian, which was followed by an Anglican
Church wedding ceremony.
In the peace that followed the final
struggles against the French in 1763,
Brant turned to full-time farming,
enjoying the home life with his wife
Owase, and their two children, Isaac and
Christina. Owase died of tuberculosis
when their son was only seven years of
age. Brant in 1773 married Owase's
sister, Onogola, (or Susannah as she was
also called), who succumbed to the same
disease a year later.
After several years, and just about the
time of the beginning of the American
Revolution, Brant again married, this
time to Catherine Croghan, who was half
Irish and half Indian. Brant had no
children by his second marriage, but by
his third wife he had seven children.
On July 11, 1774, Sir William Johnson
passed to the Grand Lodge above, at which
time Brant's life was again altered.
After the church service for Sir William
and the Masonic services that followed,
the solemn rites of the Condolence
Council of the Confederacy ended with the
laying of six strings of wampum on the
grave of their Chief, War raghiyageh .
In that same year of 1774, Colonel Guy
Johnson was appointed Superintendent of
Indian Affairs, succeeding Sir William
Johnson, and Joseph Brant became his
Soon after these appointments, a visit
to England was arranged, and it was while
on this visit that Joseph Brant joined
the Masonic Order. It is felt that Guy
Johnson and Gilbert Tice could have been
very instrumental in having Brant become
a Mason. The date on Brant's Masonic
Certificate is April 26 A.L. 5776, A.D.
1776. The certificate was signed by Jas.
Heseltine, who was the Grand Secretary of
the Moderns from 1769 to 1780. It states
that Brother Joseph Th a y e n d an e g e a , was
made a Mason and admitted to the Third
Degree of Masonry at the Lodge meeting at
the Falcon, Prince's Street, Leicester
It was on February 28th, while on this
trip to England, that Brant was presented
at Court. During this stay it appears
that he received attention from various
people of note, including the King of
England. So intimate did this friendship
become, that it was King George III who
supposedly presented Brant with his
Masonic apron. It was at the request of
James Boswell that Joseph Brant sat at
Romney, for the painting of the famous
portrait which is now in the National
Gallery of Canada at Ottawa.
It was after Brother Brant's return to
America, and during the American War, in
the fighting around Quebec, and later in
the Schoharie Valley, that we hear
stories of Bro. Brant rescuing from
torture and death, prisoners who gave the
Masonic signs. These stories, whether
well founded or not, concerns most
notably a Col. McKinstry of Claverack
Manor on the Hudson, who was said to have
been rescued after the Battle of the
Cedars, on the St. Lawrence River in
1776; Lieut. Jonathan Maynard, a prom-
inent resident of Framingham, Mass., on
May 30, 1778; and Major Wood, at the
Battle of Minisink in 1779.
Colonel John McKinstry was a member of
Hudson Lodge No. 13, New York. He was a
veteran of the French War, and at the
commencement of the American Revolution
joined the American Army. He saw action
in many of the battles that took place in
the Northern Areas. After being rescued
from death by Brant, at the Battle of the
Cedars, he and Brant became very close
friends for the remainder of their lives.
Whenever Brant was in the vicinity of the
home of Col. McKinstry, he never failed
to visit the friend whose life he had
saved. In 1805, Bro. Brant and Col.
McKinstry visited the Hudson Masonic
Lodge, where Brother Brant was handsomely
The war had been a long, bloody, and
for the British, a futile War, and it was
finally settled with the Treaty of
Versailles, being signed in 1783 in
Paris. The British lost the Thirteen
Colonies, and America was an Independent
Nation. The lands of the Iroquois
Confederacy had been the location of a
considerable amount of the hostilities
and these lands were left in American
hands, and in a very desolate state.
It was at this time that the Loyalists
of the Iroquois Confederacy decided to
move to Canada, where the British
Governor, Sir Frederick Haldimand, had
arranged with the British Government to
provide lands for them. Some settled in
the Bay of Quinte area under the leader-
ship of Desoronto, but the majority of
them followed Brant, to settle on
reserved lands along the wooded banks, on
both sides of the Grand River. These
lands were granted to the Indians in
recognition of the service that they had
given to the British cause during the
wars in North America.
With the religious teachings that
Joseph Brant had received at Moor's
School, he gave great assistance to
various missionaries, and at one time he
acted as an interpreter to one named Rev.
Jeffrey Smith. Later he assisted Rev.
Steward, who had been sent out in 1770 by
the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel to preach among the Mohawks, in
translating the Acts of the Apostles into
the Mohawk tongue.
A very short distance down river from
the present City of Brantford, a new
Indian Village began to take form under
Brother Brant's direction and encourage-
ment. H'e re the famous St. Paul's, Her
Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks, was
built in 1785, under contract with two
United Empire Loyalists, John Smith and
John Thomas. Timber for this Chapel was
cut in the neighborhood of the present
Town of Paris, and was floated down the
Grand River to the Mohawk Village. This
Chapel is the oldest Protestant place of
worship in Ontario, and it still stands
on Mohawk Street in Brantford.
Brother Brant and his family lived in a
frame house not far to the south from the
Church, and nearby were clustered about
twenty other log or frame houses. A saw
mill, a grist mill, a school, and other
buildings were shortly afterwards
erected in this newly established Indian
The Village was named Mohawk Castle or
Mohawk Village, and was something like
the outpost of civilization at that time,
to be passed through by those pioneers
who first settled in the inland portions
of the Province. From here there was an
ancient Indian foot trail, known as the
Detroit Path, leading into the wilderness
and which became the main route into the
newly inhabited Home and Western Dis-
tricts, now known as Brant, Oxford,
Middlesex and Wellington Counties.
Among the great treasures of the
Iroquois Confederacy, and which were
buried for ten years on the farm of Boyd
Hunter, overlooking the Mohawk River,
were the Bible, and Silver Communion
Service given by Queen Anne in 1712 to
•Her Majesty's Chapel of the Mohawks*.
These lay hidden during hostilities in
New York State, but were brought to
Canada by the Indian Loyalists - the
Bible and four pieces of the Silver were
taken to Brantford, while the remaining
pieces of Silver were taken to Desoronto,
on the north shore of Lake Ontario.
Records show that Brant was present at
Barton Lodge //ID (now //6, Hamilton) at
its organizational meeting on January 31,
1796. Brant was not noted as a visitor,
and was not included as one of the
Charter Members. He did not sign the
'Rules and Regulations', nor is it
recorded that he revisited the Lodge at
any time between 1796 and 1803. There is
no record of Brant ever being 'fined' as
others were, for non-attendance, thus it
appears that he must have occupied a very
privileged position in that Lodge.
R.W.Bro. William Jarvis was the
Provincial Grand Master of Upper Canada,
and in 1797 there were twelve lodges on
the roll of this First Provincial Grand
Lodge of Upper Canada. One of these was
Lodge No. 11, at Mohawk Village, which
was Warranted in 1797 by R.W.Bro. Jarvis.
The first Master of this newly Warranted
Lodge //ll was none other than Worshipful
Brother Joseph Brant, the Senior Warden
was Brother Thomas Horner, and the Junior
Warden was Brother William Kennedy Smith.
It appears as if Lodge /Ml, for some
unknown reason, later was moved to
Burford, and while at this new location
it joined with five other Lodges in
forming the Schismatic Grand Lodge of
Ni agara •
In 1822, the Second Provincial Grand
Lodge of Upper Canada was formed, and all
of the Lodges that were then under the
government of the Schismatic Grand Lodge
of Niagara, including Lodge //ll, were
received into the newly-formed Grand
Lodge without questions, which formed
solidity among Masons in Upper Canada.
King George III granted 3,450 acres of
land at the western end of Lake Ontario
and known as 'Wellington Square* (now
Burlington) to Joseph Brant, and it was
at this location that Brant built a large
two-story white frame house, and where he
lived out the closing years of his life
in the style of a colonial English
In 1937 a replica of the original house
in Burlington, was erected on the same
site, and opened two, years later as the
Joseph Brant Museum to honour the memory
of Burlington's first citizen.
Brant died on November 24, 1807, and
was buried in St. Luke's Churchyard,
Burlington. Forty-three years later, his
remains were exhumed and removed to
Brantford to be re-interred beside those
of his Son, John, in a stone tomb, in the
little Churchyard adjoining the Mohawk
Chapel, with which he had been so closely
associated in his earlier years.
This re-interment of Joseph Brant was
carried out with no small degree of
pageantry. According to local tradition,
the coffin had been carried from Welling-
ton Square to Brantford by relays of
Indians. Many people assembled and went
from Brantford for the ceremony, and
Brantford members of the Masonic Order
took part in the ceremony. Addresses were
delivered by Rev. a. Nelles, Rev. P.
Jones, Sir A. McNab, J.D. Thornburn, and
other well-known figures of the day.
After the speeches were concluded, the
interment took place and three volleys
were fired over the grave of the brave,
and faithful Indian Soldier, Joseph
Thus Joseph Brant, Thayendanegea, ^-...^
to his final resting place. As a youth he
had attracted the most favorable notice
from British officials and was destined
to play an outstanding part in the
fortunes of the British Empire in
America. For many years, he was inti-
mately associated with the highest
governing classes, among whom he found
many an occasion to exercise his skill
and diplomatic gifts. With his death
ended a distinguished career as a
warrior, statesman, and diplomat, who
practiced the principles of valour in
warfare, tolerance and devotion to his
people and to the British Crown.
Brant's honour and fame can be to some
extent attributed to the education and
training, both as an administrator and as
a soldier, which he received through and
from Sir William Johnson during the years
that they worked together.
Soon after the death of Joseph Brant,
his wife returned to the Mohawk Village
on the Grand River. She died at Brantford
on November 24, 1837, exactly thirty
years after her husband.
Brant died after witnessing one of the
most crucial periods in North American
History, and he helped in his own way to
shape the destiny of Ontario.
The focal point of the lovely Victoria
Park in Brantford, is a monument in
memory of this great Indian, and whose
honour the City of Brantford was named.
The municipality was originally estab-
lished at Brant's Ford on the Grand
River, and hence the name at its present
location. The bronze figure on the top of
this monument is of Joseph Brant, while
figures on the sides of the monument are
representative of the Indians of the
Upon Brant's death in 1807, his Masonic
Apron was given to his Son, John, and on
the death of John it was bequeathed to
Joseph Brant's son-in-law, William
Johnston Kerr, the husband of Elizabeth.
Colonel Kerr became a member of Barton
Lodge and in 1842 became its Worshipful
Master. His friend, Hamilton O'Reilly
also became a member of Barton Lodge, and
he was bequeathed Brant's Apron upon
Kerr's death. The Apron remained in the
O'Reilly family until 1964 when it was
donated to the Barton Lodge. At the
1,625th Regular Meeting of Barton Lodge
No. 6, Hamilton, on October 20, 1971, the
Barton Lodge presented the Brant Apron to
the Joseph Brant Museum on 'Permanent
Loan ' •
The Apron due to its age required some
restoration work, and this was accom-
plished by the Art Conservation Depart-
ment of Queen's University, Kingston,
Ontario, during the School Term 1984-
In 1916, the twenty-third Masonic
District was formed in the Grand Lodge of
Canada in the Province of Ontario. It was
formed because the districts were
becoming so large, that the District
Deputy Grand Masters were reporting that
they could not satisfactorily serve them
under their present very large number of
lodge s •
This new Masonic District //23 took
name of Brant, because it seemed a m
logical name at the time. Joseph Bra
or Thay endanegea , was the first recor
native Mason in this area, and he was
first Worshipful Master of Masonic Lo
//ll, at Mohawk Village, near the pres
City of Brantford, in the Township
Brantford, and in the County of Brant,
was in 1923 that all of the Districts
the Grand Lodge of Canada in the Provi
of Ontario, had the number dropped f
o s t
their names, and thereafter they were
listed in alphabetic order.
The first Masonic Lodge constituted in
the City of Brantford carried the name of
Brant - Brant Lodge No. 45. This Lodge
was originally constituted in 1853 as
//323 under the jurisdiction of the Grand
Lodge of Ireland. Upon the formation of
the Grand Lodge of Canada on October 10,
1855, it was given the number ^22', but
when the present Grand Lodge had com-
pleted its organizational procedures on
July 14, 1858, all Lodges that were then
under its jurisdiction were renumbered
according to their seniority, and Brant
Lodge then received the number ^45*,
which it retains today.
Many people over the years have visited
the grave of Joseph Brant, and a number
of these, wishing a souvenir, would chip
pieces from the cement vault in which the
body of Joseph Brant was enclosed. In
order to stop this vandalism, an iron
fence was erected around the outside of
the vault. Over a period of time the
inscription on the vault became less
visible, and in order to preserve the
information, the Masonic Foundation of
Ontario had a bronze plaque made, with a
duplication on it of the faded inscrip-
tion on the vault. This was erected on
the side of the iron fence for the
information of the general public of the
great person who was interred there.
The Masonic Foundation of Ontario also
donated 100 Bibles and 100 Prayer Books
for use in the historic church.
In 1984, a group of Masons from the
Brant Masonic District formed a Committee
to work within the District to acquire
funds for the obtaining and installing of
an organ in St. Paul's, Her Majesty's
Chapel of the Mohawks, at Brantford. The
fund-raising was completed, and the organ
was paid for and was installed during
July, 1986, at a cost of $20,800.
In these various ways it is hoped that
the public would recognize the close
affiliation of the Indians, and espec-
ially Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant,
with the Principles of the Masonic Order.
Brandon, William, "The American Heritage
Book of Indians", Dell Publishing
Co., Inc., New York, U.S.A., 1961.
Brantford Expositor, "Joseph Brant-
Early Masonic Lodge Master", Brant-
ford, Ontario. Issue of 26 July,
Brett, Gerard, "The Life and Masonic
Career of Joseph Brant", C.M.R.A.,
Bulletin No. 15, 1953.
Dawe, Brian, "Old Oxford Is Wide Awake",
John Deyell Co., Publishers, Ontario,
Dougherty, E.F., "Loyalist Masons of the
Mohawk Valley", C.M.R.A., Bulletin
No. 73, 1963.
Dunham, Mabel, "Grand River", T.H. Best
Printing Co., Ltd., Toronto, for
McClelland & Stewart Limited, 1943.
Fraser, Mary M., "Joseph Brant, Thayen-
danegea". Published by the Board of
Management of the Joseph Brant
Museum, Burlington, in 1969, and
printed by the Halton Press Limited,
Globe and Mail, "Museum Relics Reminders
of Indian Missionary Who Ended Life
As Colonial Country Gentleman",
Toronto, Ontario. Issue of 24
Haldimand Press, "Joseph Brant", by
Cheryl MacDonald, Hagersville,
Ontario. Issue of 19 January, 1984.
Johnston, Charles M., "The Valley of the
Six Nations", University of Toronto
Press, Toronto, Ontario, 1964.
Johnston, Charles M., "Brant County, A
History, 1784 - 1945", Oxford Uni-
versity Press, Toronto, Ont . , 1967.
Josephy, Alvin M. Jr., "The Indian
Heritage of America, Publisher-
Alfred A. Knopf, New York, U.S.A.,
Monture, Ethel Brant, "Canadian Portraits
of Famous Indians", Publisher - Clark
Irwin & Co., Ltd., Toronto, 1960.
Pe t r i e ,
A. Roy, "The Canadians - Joseph
Brant", Printed by Fitzhenry &
Whiteside Ltd., 150 Lesmill Road, Don
Mills, Ontario, M3B 2T5, 1978.
Pos, Jacob (Jack), "Joseph Brant-
Thayendanegea", Paper presented at
the special dedication service of the
Joseph Brant's Apron at Burlington,
Ontario, 29 May, 1986.
Robinson, Helen Caister, "Joseph Brant-
A Man For His People", Printed by
Longman Canada Limited, Don Mills,
Ontario , 197 1.
"Six Nations Indians - Yesterday and
Today, 1867-1942", A Souvenir book
published by the Six Nations Agricul-
tural Society to commemorate the
Diamond Anniversary of the organi-
zation. William Smith was its
President at the time of its publi-
cation. The article on page 34,
titled "Captain Joseph Brant
( Thay endanegea ) ; Warrier, Statesman,
and Diplomat", which was written by
Norman E. Lickers, B.A.
Stone, William L., "Life of Joseph Brant
- Thayendanegea" (Books I & II),
Publisher Alexander V. Blake, New
York, 1838. Re-Printed by Kraus
Reprint Co., New York, 1969.
Talman, James J., "Early Freemasonry in
Ontario", C.M.R.A., Bulletin No. 22,
Talman, James J., Historical Sketch to
Commemorate the S e s q u i -Cen t e na r y of
Freemasonry in the Niagara District
1792-1942. Hamilton, Ontario, 1942.
"Whence Come We?", Edited by the Special
Committee on the History: Wallace
McLeod, Chairman, Published by
Authority of the Grand Master,
Masonic Holdings, Hamilton, Ontario,
L8N 3C9, 1980.
REVIEWS OF PAPER PRESENTED TO
THE HERITAGE LODGE
March 11th, 1987
Bro. William W. Mitchell
Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant
FIRST REVIEW - was prepared by W.Bro.
Malcolm Montgomery, Past Master of Zeta
Lodge No. 410, Toronto District 7.
Worshipful Master and Brethren:
It is entirely appropriate that Bro.
William W. Mitchell should produce his
paper on Worshipful Brother Joseph Brant
and Brant^s Masonic Career. The last
paper written on this subject was that of
W.Bro. Dr. Gerard Brett "The Life and
Masonic Career of Joseph Brant" delivered
at Toronto on May 19, 1953 (The Papers of
The Canadian Masonic Research Associa-
tion, The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 1986 pp
273-289). Much scholarship and research
has been done since Dr. Brett has
delivered his paper and there was thus a
need to update and revise the assessment
of Joseph Brant based on information
which has come to light since that time.
In the overall picture, Bro. Mitchell's
paper is a useful addition to the
knowledge which we have with reference to
Joseph Brant but respectfully the paper
needs revision. Various errors abound
which should have been corrected prior to
submission. For example, at page 2, Sir
William Johnson is introduced as having
been a major influence upon Brant in his
lifetime. Twice following this reference
Sir William becomes "Sir Johnson" which
is unacceptable English usage. The need
for further revision is demonstrated in
several places. "Albert" Tice is des-
cribed as entering St. Patrick's Lodge at
Johnstown, New York, on May 23, 1766.
Bro. Mitchell possibly intended that this
should be Gilbert Tice who was the Mason
in question and who accompanied Brant to
England in 1776. Tice was an innkeeper at
Johnstown and a tenant and acquaintance
of Sir William Johnson. Gil be r t Tice is
further misdescribed as "Albert" later in
the paper. "SCoharie" by a typographical
error "Scnoharie", and on the same page
Versailles is mistyped as "Versailies".
Finally, in the respectful submission
of this reviewer, our contributors should
be encouraged in the use of notes in
which authorities supporting factual
information should be cited. In as much
as Bro. Mitchell has recited certain
factual information which diverges from
certain accepted authorities, the reader
is unable to ascertain the writer's
authorities and is thus put into a
quandary as to whether or not to accept
this type of variance as being well
founded. While a Bibliography is attached
to the paper, it is impossible to connect
the sources reflected there to the main
body of the work.
Bro. Mitchell states categorically that
"Sir William Johnson's third wife was
Joseph Brant's sister Molly, and they
were married in 1760". Surely, here Bro.
Mitchell is being too charitable to Molly
None of Sir William
biographers, commencing with William L.
Stone in 1864 to James Thomas Flexner in
1959 advanced Molly Brant to the position
of legal wife. Stone says that "...
Johnson employed as his housekeeper, Mary
Brant ... by whom he has several chil-
dren." Flexner refers to her as Johnson's
"first formal Indian wife", but then goes
on later to say that they were not
married "according to the white man's
rites ...". In his last will and testa-
ment, written a few months prior to his
death in 1774, Sir William described
Molly Brant as "my present housekeeper",
and the children which he had sired by
Mary Brant as "natural". In 1779 Mary
Brant's biographer Professor Barbara
Graymont described the relationship as a
"liaison" in the Dictionary Of Canadian
B i ogr aphy Vol. IV. The final word on the
matter was rendered definitively both
historically and judicially by Hon. Mr.
Justice William Renwick Riddell in an
article published in 1922 in Ontario
Historical Society Papers and Records
(Vol. 19, pp 147-157) entitled "Was Molly
Brant Married?'*. After an exhaustive
review of fact and law, Riddell J.
answered the question in the negative.
The only recent support for a marriage is
the s em i - f i c t i ona 1 Mistress Molly, The
Brown Lady; Portrait of Molly Brant by
Helen Caistor Robinson, Dundurn Press,
Further questions arise with reference
to Brant's education. There is no doubt
that Sir William sent Joseph to Moor's
Indian Charity School at Lebanon,
Connecticut. Brant's last biographer
Isabel Thompson Kelsay published in 1984
after thirty years of research states
that Johnson received a letter from the
headmaster Rev. Eleazar Wheelock in 1761
that Wheelock had received a grant for
the support of "three boys of the Six
Nations" and requesting Sir William to
make the nominations. Sir William sent
three Mohawk boys including Joseph Brant.
The school which Wheelock had founded
at Lebanon was primarily established to
convert and educate
tribes. Brant was employed to
Kirkland the Mohawk Ian
Kirkland wished to be
g u a g e
Six Nations Indians, which he j.ob%=<.
became. Wheelock noted that on his
arrival. Brant "could speak only a few
words of English". This seems to deny any
previous education by Joseph Brant.
Further, it would have been extremely
unusual for a "settlers school" to have
been started in Canajoharie. Canajoharie
on the Mohawk river was in the main area
of Mohawk village settlement and not
Governor William Tryon in his report on
the state of the Province of New York in
1774 reflected that 221 Mohawks were
living there and thus the area had not
been open to European settlement. Thus we
are anxious to know of Bro. Mitchell's
authority for his conclusion that Brant
attended a settlers school there. We must
also remember that the majority of the
children of colonial New York never saw
the inside of a schoolhouse and that Sir
William opened the first school in Tryon
county at Johnstown in 1769.
We are also curious about the source of
Bro. Mitchell's conclusion that Sir
William Johnson was made an Indian Chief.
Johnson's biographer, J.T. Flexner
describes it as "an adoption ceremony".
Creation of a chief ship would have been
unlikely at the time since the later
custom of the creation of honorary
chiefships had not yet commenced.
Another point which calls for authority
is the submission that Sir William's son-
in-law, Guy Johnson, and Joseph Brant
attended the same school. Little is known
about the early life of Guy Johnson. His
biographer Professor Jonathon G. Rossie
in Volume IV of Dictionary of Canadian
Biography simply mentions that Guy
Johnson may have been the midshipman who
served under that name in H.M.S. Fury in
1755 and that although young, he served
through the Seven Years War as an officer
in the Provincial Forces. He was thought
to be born about 1740 which would have
made him about two years older than
Joseph Brant who was about eighteen when
he went to school in 1761. It seems
highly improbable that Guy Johnson, after
being a company commander under Lord
Amherst in 1759 and 1760 should have gone
to school at age twenty-one in 1761
pecially since he was secretary -»--
especially since he was secretary in th
Indian Department that year and rose to
deputy-agent in 1763. This is especiall
true since Moor's was a Char i t y school.
Insofar as the set of Communion Plate,
which was given to the Mohawks in 1712 by
Queen Anne, is concerned, Bro. Mitchell
describes four pieces of the silver taken
to Brantford and the remaining two were
taken to Deseronto. It is perhaps being
overly critical to note that the set was
divided four to Brantford and three to
Deseronto. This is supported by John
Wolfe Lydekker, The Faithful Mohawks ,
Cambridge University Press, 1938, page
185. This reviewer has taken communion
and inspected the silver which numbers
three pieces at the chapel on the
Tyendinaga Indian Reserve. All are
engraved with the royal cipher and the
coat -of -arms .
The story about King George III
presenting Brant with his Masonic apron
should soon be laid to rest. It would
seem that this fable gained currency when
it was mentioned by Bro. John Ross
Robertson in his History of Freemasonry
in Canada published in 1900. Robertson
stated it to be a fact but Brant's most
recent biographer, Isabel Thompson
Kelsay, was more circumspect. She added
"is said" by way of qualification since
Robertson gave no foundation whatsoever
for the statement. The story of the
presentation of the masonic apron to
Joseph Brant by King George III is made
even more unlikely because of the fact
that George III had no connection with
Freemasonry nor was he a member. This is
confirmed by Bernard E. Jones, Freemasons
Guide and Compendium , Harrap, London,
Bro. Mitchell is slightly in error with
reference to Brant's portrait by Romney.
The portrait of Brant by Romney was
apparently done at the request of the
Earl of Warwick, so Kelsay reports. The
portrait hung in Warwick Castle for many
years prior to finding its way to the
National Gallery of Canada. James Boswell
did, indeed have in his possession a
drawing of Brant from which an engraving
was made and which engraving appeared
with Boswell's article on Brant which
appeared in the London Magazine , July,
1776, page 339. The engraving is clearly
not from the Romney portrait and depicts
a rather wild-eyed savage, holding a
knife, upturned in his right hand. It is
obviously the work of a second-rate
artist. This drawing has apparently been
lost and is discussed in the Yale
Editions of the Boswell Papers, Bo s we 1 1 :
The Ominous years 1774 - 1776 edited by
Charles Rysiamn and Frederick A. Pottle.
We have observed above that much has
been written about the subject since Dr.
Brett brought out his paper in 1953.
Unfortunately Bro. Mitchell does not
include these works in his Bibliography.
The leading authorities are Isabel
Thompson Kelsay, Joseph Brant 1743-1807:
Man of Two Worlds , 1984; Barbara
Graymont, The Iroquois in the American
Revolution , 1972; James Thomas Flexner,
Mohawk Baronet , 1959; and the biographies
of Molly Brant, Joseph Brant, Sir William
Johnson and Guy Johnson contained in the
Dictionary of Canadian Biography Vols. IV
and V, published in 1979 and 1983
respectively. Insofar as Brant's masonic
career in Canada is concerned, Bro.
Mitchell would have found Norman
Macdonald, The Barton Lodge 1795-1945 ,
Ryerson 1945, and George E. Mason,
Historical Sketch of The Barton Lodge ,
1895, to be invaluable. Both of these
volumes are in the Library of the Grand
Lodge at Hamilton.
Brother Mitchell has filled in many
historical gaps following Brant's arrival
in Ontario in 1784 including an updated
status report on the Brant Museum at
Burlington and her Majesty's Chapel of
the Mohawks at Brantford. This is an area
largely left uncovered by Dr. Brett in
1953, Brother Mitchell is obviously very
familiar with Brantford and Burlington
and should be commended for his contri-
bution to masonic knowledge in that
regard. Brother Mitchell is undoubtedly
aware of the fact that Joseph Brant's
cuirass or silver gorget is in the
possession of the Joseph Brant Museum at
Burlington. On its face is engraved 'the
Royal Cipher G.R. and the Royal Coat of
Arms, with decorative arrangements of
British and Indian instruments of battle
on the left and right. Inscribed on the
back are the words "The Gift of a Friend
to Capt. Brant". This gorget was auct-
ioned by Sotheby & Co.» the famous
English auctioneers at The Robert Simpson
Co. Ltd., at Toronto on May 29th, 1968
for the sum of $13,000.00. Even they were
hinting that the gorget was a gift of
King George III.
In writing this paper, Bro. Mitchell
has grasped the nettle of a complex and
controversial topic. He deserves our
gr at i t ude .
SECOND REVIEW - Prepared by R.W.Bro.
Wallace E. McLeod, Charter Member of The
Worshipful Master and Brethren:
It is proper to begin by thanking Bro.
Mitchell for his useful contribution. He
does well to remind us of this notable
Freemason; he provides enough background
to help us understand Brant's world a bit
better, and he tells us something of his
legacy. Personally I should have welcomed
more details about his activities during
the American Rebellion, particularly at
Oriskany and Cherry Valley. Because of
such exploits as these, our American
neighbors harbour an irrational hostility
towards him, and lay various atrocities
at his door, as I have found out to my
I call attention to a few points of
detail. Bro. Mitchell sets Brant's birth
on 24 November, 1742, and his death on 29
November, 1807; the latter is evidently a
misprint for 24 November, as we learn
from the death-notice of his widow. Yet
it hardly seems likely that he died on
his birthday. Barbara Graymont, in her
life of Thay endanegea in the D i c t i onar y
of Canadian Biography , volume 5 (1983),
page 803, calculates that he was probably
born in March 1742. Further, she inter-
prets his name as "he set or places
together two bets.'* Bro. Mitchell twice
speaks of Albert Tice; this is a slip for
"Gilbert Tice", for whom Bro. E.F.
Dougherty provides a short biographical
notice in the Papers of the CMRA , No. 73
(1963), on page 1255 of the reprint.
Brant's Masonic certificate still
survives; it is kept in the Department of
Ethnology of the Royal Ontario Museum in
Toronto, where it carries the catalogue
number 911.3.87. It might have been worth
noting that, according to Lane's Ma s on i c
Records » Brant's mother lodge, at Falcon
in London, is to be identified with
Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge No. 417 on the
Register of the Moderns; it existed only
from 1771 to 1782. Bro. Mitchell repeats
John Ross Robertson's story that King
George III presented Brant with his
Masonic apron. Bro. T.O. Haunch, the
former Librarian and Curator of the
Freemason's Hall in London, has expressed
his skepticism by writing, "George III
was not a Freemason and as far as I am
aware he had no connection with the
Order . "
Bro. Mitchell mentions that Brant "sat
at Romney" for the portrait that now
hangs in the National Gallery of Canada
in Ottawa; not all his audience may
realize from this that the picture was
painted by the artist George Romney
( 1734-1802) .
The story of the rescue of Colonel
McKinstry at the Battle of the Cedars is
probably apocryphal; the encounter took
place about 20 May, 1776, and on that
date Brant was apparently still in
England; see Bro. Gerard Brett's dis-
cussion in the Papers of the CMRA , No. 15
(1953), on page 277 of the collected
edit ion .
Bro. Mitchell says that Brant's lodge
in Upper Canada, No. 11 on the Register
of the First Provincial Grand Lodge, was
received into the Second Provincial Grand
Lodge in 1822; I had not thought it
lasted so long, and should welcome
And finally, as a Director of the
Masonic Foundation of Ontario, I must
note that the Foundation was heavily
involved in Brant District
project to install an organ in the Chapel
of the Mohawks,
These are all details, and hardly
detract from Bro. Mitchell's achievement.
THIRD REVIEW - Presented by R.W.Bro. Jack
Pos, Charter Member and first Worshipful
Master of The Heritage Lodge.
Worshipful Master and Brethren:
We are grateful to Brother Mitchell for
bringing to us this evening the results
of his researches on Joseph Brant, a war
chief of the Six Nations Confederacy, who
supported the ^Crown' during the American
Revolution, as well as a brief sketch of
his masonic career.
Brother Mitchell's account of the Brant
story begins in the second quarter of the
18th century, on "the prized hunting
lands of the Iroquois'*. Actually, the
Ohio valley had long been the favorite
hunting-ground for many Indian Tribes.
For a whole century, Delaware, Shawnee,
Wyandot and the Six Nations (Mohawks,
Cayugas, Senecas, Oneidas, Onondagas and
Tuscaroras) had contended for the
territory; and it was not until the
Iroquois Confederacy, which united the
five tribes into a strong and powerful
Nation (the Tuscaroras, as the sixth
tribe joined later in 1715), and which
gained for them the prized hunting lands.
I mention this because there is some
doubt as to the actual parentage of
Joseph Brant .
As for his mother, she may have been a
Mohawk but this is by no means certain.
It has been suggested (j)****^ that she
could have been a damsel of the Shawnee
race who had left the wigwams of her
people to move in with the Mohawks.
As for Brant's father, it is generally
agreed that he was a full-blooded Mohawk
and a chief of the Wolf clan. Some
Historians (2,3,4 and 5), say his name
was T e h o ~ w a g h - w e n - g a r a g h - k w i n , Chief
Nikkus or Old Brant, son of Sa G a. Yeath
Qua Pieth Tow (Christianized Brant), one
of the four ^Sachems' of the Five Nations
Confederacy that, along with several
Colonial Officials, went to England in
1710 to attempt to convince Queen Anne
and her Government to increase dramatic-
ally its military support to the thirteen
colonies against the French (5).
It was also during this visit, that the
four Indian Chiefs asked Queen Anne to
send missionaries to the Indian country.
Government funds were promised to build a
chapel, house, and fort for the Mohawks.
Among the gifts bestowed by the Queen
were a handsome bible and a seven piece
set of communion silver plate inscribed
Bracketed numbers refer to
numbered ^References' listed at the
conclusion of this review.
with the royal cipher and coat of arms.
Three of these pieces, the flagon,
chalice and paten, are now in the
possession of the Band Council, Mohawks
of the Bay of Quinte, Deseronto, Ontario.
These were examined personally with the
kind permission of Chief Melville Hill,
the current custodian. Mohawk Sunday is
the Sunday closest to May 22nd, the
anniversary of the arrival of the Mohawk
Indians at Deseronto in 1784; when the
Mohawks re-enact the landing of their
ancestors. They carry a birch bark canoe
from the shore along with the Queen Anne
Silver, overturn the canoe and place the
Communion Service on it in front of a
cairn which marks the spot of the first
landing. There are prayers of thanks-
giving and Hymns in the Mohawk Language.
Afterwards a Communion Service is held in
Christ Church, a historic one as it was
built in 1843, in which the Queen Anne
Silver is used at least three times a
year: Christmas, Easter and Mohawk
The other four pieces are in the
possession of the Band Council, Mohawks
of the Six Nations Reserve, Osweken,
Ontario. They are stored in a vault and
only displayed on special occasions; the
last time being the visit of Queen
Elizabeth II, to Canada in October, 1977,
when the four pieces of silver and the
Bible were taken under police protection
to Ottawa where they were combined with
the other three pieces from Deseronto and
placed on display on the occasion of the
Queen ' s visit.
To continue with Joseph's parentage,
other Historians (6), record that the
father died while Brant was still an
infant; and when the mother returned with
her two children, Mary (Molly) and
Joseph, to Canajoharie, she married a
respectable Indian called Carrihogo
( news - c ar r i e r ) , whose christian name was
Burnet, or Bernard; but by way of
contraction he went by the name of
^Brant*. And as Brother Mitchell has
noted the lad, who was to become the
future war chief, was first known by the
distinctive appellation of ~Brant's
Joseph' and in the process of time, by
inversion, ^Joseph Brant'.
Reference was made to Sir William
Johnson's third marriage to Molly Brant
in 1760. While there are records of the 8
children consummated from this union (two
boys and six girls), there is no record
of a christian marriage. Therefore it is
assumed the two were married by Indian
Ceremony. The only official record is
that of his first marriage to Catherine
Weisenberg, a healthy young Dutch girl he
purchased for 5 pounds as his house-
keeper. She bore him three children, John
(later Sir John Johnson), Nancy (married
Captain Daniel Claus - first Jr. Warden
Lodge), and Mary (
married her cousin Col. Guy Johnson-
first Sr. Warden of St. Patrick's Lodge).
The wedding ceremony was performed on
Catherine's death bed in 1744.
For the next three years. Sir William
was to become very much pre-occupied with
hostilities along the northern frontier.
The strategic outpost at Oswego was being
attacked frequently by raiding parties of
Indians from French Canada; the war in
Northern New York was loosing ground.
funds were reduced drastically and
jealousies between the colonies prevented
any concerted action.
It was at this time (about 1746)» that
William Johnson, in need of a companion
and housekeeper for his home at Fort
Johnson, and wanting to cement his
relations more firmly with the Indians,
took for himself an Indian Princess, the
niece of the most important chief of the
Mohawks, old King Hendrick. There is no
record of a Christian wedding, but most
Historians agree there must have been an
Indian Ceremony. There were three
children by this marriage, William of
Canajoharle and Caroline & Charlotte
(both of whom later married English
Officers). The mother died in child birth
with the third child.
Brother Mitchell states "At the age of
nineteen, and influenced no doubt by Sir
William Johnson, Brant enrolled in Moor's
Charity Mission School". This could have
been substantiated by one of the follow-
ing references: The date of enrollment
was August 1st, 1761 (2), there were
actually three Indian boys registered on
that day (Joseph, Center and Negyes), and
i^^^ *. ^ ^Yie Principal, Rev. Dr. E
according to the Principal, Rev. Ur. E.
Wheelock, "Two of them were little better
than naked and could not speak a word of
English, but the other, being of a family
of distinction among them, was consider-
ably clothed Indian fashion and could
speak a few words of English".
Further proof can be found in a letter
(7), dated Nov. 17th, 1761, and written
by William Johnson to Dr. Wheelock:
"Rev. Sir, - Yours of the second
instant I had the pleasure of
receiving by the hands of Mr.
Kirkland. I am pleased to find the
lads I sent have merited your good
opinion of them. I have given it in
charge of Joseph (Brant) to speak in
my name ...".
There is some controversy concerning
Joseph Brant's admission into Free-
masonry, particularly who may have
influenced his intention, the actual date
of the ceremony and who presented him
with his apron (there are no records, in
the present archives of the United Grand
Lodge of England, to indicate that Brant
was ever made a mason) and Brother
Mitchell does not cite any particular
reference for his conclusions.
A number of Masons from North America
have, at various times, written to the
United Grand Lodge of England for
confirmation: 1. W.Bro. William H.
Graves, Past Master of Hudson Lodge //7
(Captain John McKinstry was one of the
Founders), Hudson, New York, Feb. 18,
1954; 2. Bro. Leroy V. Brant (Great-
Great - G r e a t Grandson of Joseph Brant),
1166 Martin Ave., San Jose 26,
California, May 27th, 1954; 3. W.Bro.
Henry W. Croteau, Jr., Claverack, New
York, Aug. 7th, 1967; 4. Murray Killman
U.E.L., R.R. //I, Caledonia, Ontario,
March 22nd, 1976; 5. V. W.Bro. J. Pos,
W.M., The Heritage Lodge No. 730, Guelph,
Ontario, July, 1975, and again in Aug.,
1979; the common reply (from the Grand
Lodge of England) to all of these
inquiries is as follows:
"... official records here contain no
details of Brant's admission nor of his
subsequent masonic career if » indeed, he
had one. The only evidence known to us of
his connection with the Craft comes from
a secondary source, J. Ross Robertson's
History of Freemasonry in Canada , and I
know from previous correspondence that
you are well aware of the reference in
that monumental work. You will know,
therefore, that in Volume 1, opposite
page 688 is reproduced the fac-simile of
the Certificate issued to Brant by the
premier Grand Lodge of England in 1776
which records that he was "made a Mason
and admitted to the Third Degree of
Masonry in a lodge meeting at "The
Falcon', Princes Street, Leicester
Fields, London." This lodge has been
identified as Hiram's Cliftonian Lodge
No. 417, constituted in 1771 but erased
from the Roll eleven years later. No
records of admissions to this lodge exist
and so the evidence of the G. L. Cer-
tificate cannot be verified, nor can
Brant's date of initiation be estab-
lished. Robertson erroneously states this
to have been the 26th April, 1776, but
this is, in fact, the date of issue of
This unfortunate error has been
perpetuated by other writers copying
Robertson, as has his other statement
that Brant was presented with a masonic
apron by King George III. Robertson did
not quote his authority for this assert-
ion which sounds very much like the sort
of family legend which is not uncommon.
George III was not a Freemason and as far
as I am aware he had no connection with
the Order in spite of the fact that his
1 1 1
father and two brothers were Masons and
six of his own sons also subsequently
became members. •••*'•
Librarian and Curator."
While there may be no records in the
archives of the Grand Lodge in England to
substantiate Brant being a Mason, there
is sufficient other evidence to support
this belief, as Brother Mitchell has also
noted. For example. Van Dusen (8) writes
"It was during this, his first visit to
England, due, perhaps to the earlier
influence of his benefactor. Sir William
Johnson, who had organized St. Patrick's
Lodge No. 4, at Johnstown, that Chief
Brant became a member of the Masonic
fraternity." Also Bro. Mitchell reports
that "Brant was present at Barton Lodge
No. 10 (now No. 6, Hamilton), at its
organizational meeting on January 31st,
1796." According to Sheppard (9), Barton
Lodge was Chartered Nov. 20, 1795, and
the minutes of those early meetings,
which were kept on loose sheets of paper,
were lost. The earliest record that now
exists, is that of the meeting of Jan.
31st, 1796, which was attended by 12
members and four visitors. Among the
members appears the name of "Bro. Capt.
Brant". Further proof, as Bro. Mitchell
has noted, are found in reports relating
to the first Provincial Grand Lodge of
With reference to the McKinstry affair,
an article, by J.R. Fawcett Thompson, in
the January, 1969, issue of The Connoiss-
eur, a monthly magazine published in
England, which is titled "Thayendanegea
the Mohawk and his several
makes some interesting observations. This
portion of the article refers to the time
of Brant's first visit to England and his
subsequent return to America. "In his
circumstantial account, Boswell states
categorically that on the successful
conclusion of his mission, Thay e ndanegea
(with Captain Tice) ^sailed for America
early in May*. It has however been
alleged that the Chief led 500 Mohawks in
support of British troops at the scat-
tered action around the fortified post of
Les Cedres, on the St. Lawrence River 43
miles above Montreal - known as The
Battle of the Cedars - which was fought
between the 17th and 21st of that month
and ended the abortive American invasion
of Canada in 1776. In this engagement,
497 Americans were captured, among them-
it is said - being a certain Captain
John McKinstry. This officer, when about
to be burnt at the stake by the Mohawks,
made a masonic sign of distress which was
seen by T h a y e n d a n e g e a who personally
intervened and saved the American's life
by purchasing an ox which was roasted in
his stead There is, however, an
insuperable datal objection to this
melodramatic rescue having been effected
at The Battle of the Cedars between the
17th and 21st May. If Boswell's date for
the departure from England, supported by
the evidence of Romney's diary (the
Artist who painted Brant's portrait) and
that of the Chief's Grand Lodge Cer-
tificate be accepted, Thay endanegea could
not have been present on that date. The
swiftest passage from Plymouth to the
coast of New York would alone have taken
not less than 35 days, and then there was
an upcountry journey of some 280 miles to
cover (by canoe - at least 5 or 6 days);
the route to the St. Lawrence and Quebec,
taking about 40 days could scarcely have
been quicker. Furthermore, in his well
documented account of this fighting,
Gustave Lanctot (10) makes no reference
to Thayendanegea; although the other
leaders are named including the Canadian
De Lorimier who not only recruited the
Indians to aid the British in this action
but himself led them (11). Neither does
Simon Sanguinet mention the Mohawk War
Chief (12). Furthermore, although 12 men
from his Company appear in the list of
American prisoners, McKinstry himself is
not among the nine Captains named therein
(13). Thus the inescapable conclusion
would seem to be, despite Stone's
assertion that the Chief was there (1),
that the McKinstry incident must,
perhaps, have occurred at some later
encounter during the Campaign."
Bro. Mitchell goes on to say "It was at
this time that the Loyalists of the
Iroquois Confederacy decided to move to
Canada ..."; then Chief Brant sailed a
second time for England in an effort to
obtain compensation for the war losses of
the Iroquois, landing on the 14th,
December, 1785. Now 44 and in his prime,
the Chief was a striking personality,
combining resourceful diplomacy with his
military skill. Again the distinguished
Indian Chief was to sit for a number of
portraits before returning to his home
land. I will be discussing several of
these portraits in the illustrated
presentation* of W.Bro. Joseph Brant
which is to follow later this evening.
I thank The Heritage Lodge for this
opportunity to review Brother Mitchell's
paper. He is to be commended for an
interesting insight in the life of Joseph
Brant » a loyal subject and a good Mason.
* This "Illustrated Presentation', titled
Captain Joseph Brant, has been trans-
ferred to a Video Cassette (VHS) and will
be available from the Grand Lodge Library
in Hami 1 ton .
1. Wood, Louis Aubrey, THE WAR CHIEFS OF
THE SIX NATIONS , a Chrono-
logical of Joseph Brant,
Brook and Company, Toronto,
Ontario , 1915.
2. Eraser, Mary M., "Joseph Brant,
Thayendanegea", the Board
of Management of the Joseph
Brant Museum, Burlington,
Ontario , 1 969 .
3. Flexner, James Thomas, MOHAWK BARONET ,
Sir William Johnson of New
York, Harper and Brothers
Publishing, New York, 1959.
4. Klock, Edgar Jackson, "Joseph Brant-
Thayendanegea, an Address
delivered before the
Herkimer County Historical
Society, 8 April, 1899.
5. , "THE FOUR INDIAN KINGS", an
Exhibition Opened by Her
Majesty, Queen Elizabeth
II, at the Public Archives
of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario,
16 October, 1977.
6. Strachan» the Rev. Dr., (Editor), The
Christian Register, vol. 1,
n. 3, 1819, published at
it * -k-kic
HISTORY OF BRANT COUNTY-
ONTARIO , Warner, Beers and
Company, Toronto, Ontario,
8. Van Dusen, Lillian D., "Chief Joseph
Brant The Iroquois Mason",
Fonda, New York.
Sheppard, Osborne, A CONCISE HISTORY
OF FREEMASONRY IN CANADA ,
Compiled and Published by
the Author, 1912, 1915, and
1924. (there are a number
of errorsin this refer-
ence ) .
10. Lanctot, Gustave, LE CANADA ET LA
.Dr. Strachan, afterwards the
Honourable and Venerable Archdeacon of
Toronto, wrote the sketches for the
Christian Register upon information
received from the Rev. Dr. Stewart,
formerly a missionary in the Mohawk
valley (The same Dr. Stewart who visited
Brant during the winter of 1771. After
the death of Brant*s first wife he lived
with Dr. Stewart at Fort Hunter, where he
assisted in translating and revising the
Indian prayer book, a brief history of
the bible, and a part of the Acts of the
Apostles, together with an explanation of
the church catechism in the Mohawk
REVOLUTION AMERICAINE , p .
161, Montreal, P.Q., 1865.
11. De Lorimier. MES SERVICES PENDANT LA
GUERRE AMERICAINE DE 1775 ,
Montreal , P .Q. , 187 1.
12. Sanguinet, Simon, JOURNAL 1 775-1776.
13. , NARRATION AUTHENTIQUE DE
PECHANGE PES PRISONNIERS
FAIT AUX CEDRES , Montreal,
P.Q. , 1873 .
Brother William W. Mitchell
I thank the reviewers of this paper,
namely, R.W.Bros. Wallace McLeod and Jack
Pos, and Bro. Malcolm Montgomery, for the
time that they have taken to review this
paper, and the preparing of their
comment s .
I have read quite a number of books and
articles on The Life of Joseph Brant, and
on the activities of the Six Nations
Indians, and I have found them to be very
fascinating, but I have also found that
the statements made by one author could
be opposite to the remarks made by
another author, which makes for very
There are some items in my paper, that
my reviewers take exception to, but I
would note for them, the reasoning behind
some of the statements I have made» and
from where I acquired this information. I
have been proceeding further with my
researching of these topics, and I am
finding new items all the time from this.
In this rebuttal I will note each of
the references to the Reviewer's comments
as ^Exhibits'. (Bro. Mitchell has sent
your editor photo-copies of each of the
Exhibits which were attached to his
written rebuttal, but these are too
voluminous to include with these Pro-
ceed ings ) .
Firstly, I was not aware of assistance
that I could have obtained from an
Editorial Board of The Heritage Lodge No.
730, as mentioned by Bro. Montgomery in
his review, or I might have taken full
advantage of such, and had the typo-
graphical errors that he mentioned,
corrected prior to this presentation. I
do hope that these do not detract too
much from the subject content of this
Referring next to Bro. McLeod's review,
I have the following to report:
Bro. McLeod questions the date of birth
and the date of death of Joseph Brant
that I have noted, to which I submit the
f o 1 lowing :
EXHIBIT ^A' :-
A statement from "Life of Joseph Brant
- Thayendanegea" (Book I), by William L.
Stone, and published by Alexander V.
Blake, New York, 1838, and reprinted by
Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969, pp 3:
"Thayendanegea was born, in the year
1742, on the banks of the Ohio."
EXHIBIT ^ B • : -
From "Six Nations Indians - Yesterday
and To-day, 1867 - 1942", which was the
souvenir book published by the Six
Nations Agricultural Society to commem-
orate the Diamond Anniversary of that
organization, on page 34 is printed an
a r ticle entitled "Captain Joseph Brant
(Thayendanegea); Warrior, Statesman, and
Diplomat," which was written by Norman £•
Lickers, B.A., in which is noted the
f o 1 lowing :
"Two centuries have elapsed since the
birth, on November 24, 1742, of Captain
Joseph Brant, celebrated Indian Warrior
and Administrator, whose loyalty to the
British Empire constitutes a memorial for
It was from these reverences that I
have noted the birth date of Joseph Brant
in my presentation. But Barbara Graymont ,
in her Life of Thayendanegea in the
Dictionary of Canadian Biography , Vol.5,
1983, pp 103, as noted by Bro. McLeod,
calculates that Joseph Brant's probable
date of birth as March, 1742, then there
are a number of incorrect statements made
by authors, along with the date quoted by
me. Even at that Barbara Graymont's
statement of Joseph Brant's birth as you
note is a "probable" date only.
Next, with reference to the death date
of Joseph Brant, I submit these:
EXHIBIT ^C ' : -
Taken from "Grand River
Dunham, and printed by T.H. Best Printing
Co. Ltd., Toronto, for McClelland &
Stewart, Limited - 1943, pp 79:
"The years wore on without cessation of
trouble, and he died, in November, 1807,
before he completed the sixty-fifth year
of his eventful life."
EXHIBIT ^D ' : -
On page 7 of "Joseph Brant - Thayen-
danegea" , a paper prepared by R.W.Bro.
ly 19, 1986, and presented at
_ service of Joseph
Apron to the Brant Museum at
Pos , dated M
a special dedication
Burlington, on May 29, 1986, is noted
"Captain Joseph Brant died at
Wellington Square, November 24, 1807, at
the age of 64."
EXHIBIT ^E' : -
I n "Life of Joseph Brant - Thayen-
danegea" (Book I), by William L. Stone,
and published by Alexander V. Blake, New
York, 1838, and re-printed by Kraus
Reprint Co., New York, 1969, pp 498:
"At this place on the 24th of November,
1807, he closed a life of greater and
more uninterrupted activity for the space
of half a century, than has fallen the
lot of almost any other man whose name
has been inscribed by the muse of
EXHIBIT 'F * : -
On page 537, of the same book in
exhibit ^E', is the following statement:
"This remarkable Indian Princess died
at Brantford, on the Grand River, on the
24th day of November, 1837 - thirty years
to a day, from the death of her husband
EXHIBIT ^G' :-
Noted on page 36 of "Six Nations
Indians - Yesterday and To-day , 18 6 7-
19 4 2" , A souvenir book published by the
Six Nations Agricultural Society to
commemorate the Diamond Anniversary of
the organization. The historical sketch
was written by Norman E. Lickers, B.A.:
"a few years before his death, he moved
to Burlington. There he built a large
two-story house and it was in this house
that he died on November 24, 1807."
From these ^exhibits' I note the date
of death of Joseph Brant as November 24,
1807, and I stand corrected in what I
noted in my presentation.
In response to the "Interpretation of
Joseph Brant's Indian name of Thayen-
EXHIBIT ^H' : -
In the footnote at the bottom of page
1 , of "Life of Joseph Brant - Thayen-
danegea" , by William L. Stone (Book I),
which was published by Alexander V.
Blake, New York, 1838, and re-printed by
Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969, we
"The meaning of the word is, two-
sticks-of-wood-bound-together , denoting
EXHIBIT ^ I ' : -
On a publication made in The Haldimand
Press , January 19, 1984, and distributed
by the 1984 Canada Wide Feature Service
Limited, written by Cheryl MacDonald, for
Ontario's Bicentennial 1784-1984, in the
third paragraph is noted this:
"The baby was called Thayendanegea-
two sticks of wood bound together - a
Mohawk symbol of strength."
"The Life and Masonic
EXHIBIT ^ J • : -
On page 1 of
Career of Joseph Brant (Part 2), by
W.Bro. Gerard Brett, which was read at
the Ninth Meeting of the Canadian Masonic
Research Association, held at Toronto,
Ontario, on May 19, 1953, is as follows:
"The Indian name meaning
Sticks . "
a Bundle of
These are the reasons for my stating
the interpretation that is in my paper.
In this regard, I had not previously
heard of the interpretation as noted by
Bro. McLeod, and therefore have accepted
what I noted above.
In regard to the name of Brother Tice
that I have noted in my presentation, I
do stand corrected in that, instead of
Albert Tice as noted, it should read
The question of the length of time that
the Lodge No. 11, existed, I would submit
the following in response to this:
At the time of the Centennial of Brant
Lodge //45, G.R.C., Brantford, Ontario,
which was celebrated on June 13, 1953, it
printed a program and in it was written
a n Historical Article , prepared by
R.W.Bro. R.W.E. McFadden, 33 Deg.,
P.D.D.G.M. of Brant Masonic District, and
Past President of the Brant Historical
Society, etc., and on page 11 is noted:
"The records of 1797 show returns from
this Lodge (No. 11), established at the
Mohawk Village where the Mohawk Church
was built in 1785. The Warrant of the
Lodge was dated 12th February, 1798,
given by R.W.Bro. William Jarvis to
Joseph Brant as the Worshipful Master;
Thomas Horner as Senior Warden; and
William K. Smith as Junior Warden. The
Lodge became a travelling Lodge early, as
the returns of March, 1802, records * No .
1 1 , Burf ord' . "
EXHIBIT "L* : -
This Historical Sketch was almost
identically printed in the programme for
the Centennial of Burford Lodge /M06,
Burford, which was celebrated on October
From these it would appear that Lodge
No. 11, Burford, was in existence in
EXHIBIT ^M' : -
Going further on this same subject, at
the Feast of St. John the Baptist, on
June 24, 1978, held in conjunction with
the 175th Anniversary of King Hiram Lodge
No. 37, Ingersoll, Ontario, and the
Wilson Masonic District Reception and
Banquet honouring Most Worshipful Brother
Robert E. Davies, Grand Master of the
Grand Lodge A.F. & A.M. of Canada in the
Province of Ontario, on page 6 of the
programme, is recorded selections taken
from the minutes of the meetings of King
Hiram Lodge, and which was prepared by
W.Bro. Stewart L. Thurtell, and I note:
"This was the first Lodge Warranted by
the Schismatic Grand Lodge of Niagara, of
which irregularity, the local brethren
were not aware."
"1803 - 24th June A visitor, Wm.
Sumner of Burford Lodge No. 11 as
Secretary Pro Tern. The Installation was
conducted by Past Masters Thomas Horner
and D. Parmer, of Burford. Other visitors
were Bro. Graham, Burford ....."
Prom this it could be assumed that
Lodge No. 11, Burford, was in existence
in 1803, Note also that Thomas Horner is
a Past Master here, and it was Thomas
Horner who was the Senior Warden when
Lodge No. 11 received its Warrant in
EXHIBITS ^K* & "L* :-
Further on those same programmes ,
another reference is made in regard to
Lodge No. 11, Burford:
"During the War of 1812, the American
General Duncan McArthur, conceived the
tactical scheme of cutting across the
Province to take the defenders of the
Peninsula in the rear. In October, of
1814, his force swept along the
Burford Road to the Grand River
where the Six Nations Indians held the
invaders McArthur was forced to
turn south. A member of Lodge No. 11 sped
on horseback to warn his friends of the
change of McArthur's plans.'*
This would seen to reveal that Lodge
No. 11, Burfordj was in existence in
EXHIBIT "N' :-
On page 25, of W.Bro. Gerard Brett's
paper on **The Life and Masonic Career of
Joseph Brant" (Part 2), which was read at
the Ninth Meeting of The Canadian Masonic
Research Association, held at Toronto,
Ontario, on May 19, 1953, is noted
"Roll of the Lodges of the Provincial
Grand Lodge at the time of the First
Kingston Convention, 1817"
"No. 11 - Burford, Lodge (Mohawk
This I believe would give us the
impression that No. 11, Burford, was
still in existence in 1817.
EXHIBIT "O' :-
And from page 21 of "The Life and
Masonic Career of Joseph Brant" (Part 2),
by W.Bro. Gerard Brett, which was read at
the Ninth meeting of The Canadian Masonic
Research Association, held at Toronto,
Ontario, on May 19, 1953:
"The visit of R. W.Bro. McGillivray
terminated in September or December, 1822
Briefly, R. W.Bro. McGillivray did
arrange the Grand Lodge at York, healed
the breach with the Schismatic Grand
Lodge at Niagara, restricted the powers
of the Provincial Grand Lodge to the
three primary degrees *'
EXHIBIT ' P • : -
From page 4 of "Early Freemasonry in
Ontario" (Part 2)» by W.Bro. James J.
Talman» London, Ontario, and which was
read at the Twelfth meeting of The
Canadian Masonic Research Association,
held at Toronto, Ontario, on May 8, 1954,
is the following:
"The advent of R.W.Bro. Simon
McGillivray in 1822, settled the diff-
erences when, apparently, all the Lodges
in Upper Canada became enrolled on the
list of the Second Provincial Grand
Lodge. The doubtful warrants of those
Lodges which had received theirs from the
Schismatic Grand Lodge were not ques-
tioned and Niagara was again joined with
the rest of Upper Canada in Masonry.
Twenty-one Lodges were active at this
It was my presumption that if the list
of Lodges that were in existence in 1817
at the First Kingston Convention, and
which contained that of No. 11, Burford,
then these were the Lodges making up the
Second Provincial Grand Lodge.
There was mention made by R.W.Bro.
McLeod, about the part that the Masonic
Foundation of Ontario had played in the
purchasing and installation of the organ
in the Chapel of the Mohawks at Brant-
At the time of writing this paper, and
even up to the time of presentation, I
have not seen any record as to what
extent the Masonic Foundation was
involved in this project. I do know that
as at December 1, 1985, $16,032.69 had
been raised by Brant Masonic District
towards the purchase and installation of
this organ. But this was not the complete
amount of all the funds collected in the
District, as I do know of some donations
being made after that date. This did not
include any interest that would likely
have accumulated, as all the funds raised
by Brant Masonic District were turned
over directly to the Masonic Foundation
of Ontario, and it was invested by the
Foundation for some months before the
payment was made for the purchase and
installation of this organ in July, 1986.
I was aware of the final cost of the
organ and its installation, but 1 was
unaware of the final donations from Brant
Masonic District, nor of the accumulated
interest, nor of the amount that the
Masonic Foundation granted towards this
project. So what I reported in this paper
was what I was aware of at that time, and
I would be very interested to know of the
final statement of the facts of this
pro jec t .
Now in response to some of the ques-
tions raise by Bro. Montgomery, I submit
the f ol lowing :
EXHIBITS ^Q * & ^R* : -
I have the spelling of the Indian
Village as Schohar ie , but Bro. Montgomery
has corrected me, and stated that it
should be spelled Scnoharie ; but upon
referring to my issue of Rand McNally &
Co. Atlas Book of Canada, U.S.A., and
Mexico, I find on the Map Page 63, and
again on the Index Page 108, for New York
State, that the spelling made by myself
in this paper to be correct, and the
spelling by Brother Montgomery '"
incorrect. The correct spelling remains
as shown Schohar ie .
Next, with reference to the Third Wife
of Sir William Johnson - Molly Brant.
There could be some differences in
opinion as to the term "Marriage", as
relating to marriage as we know it in our
present day, and which is the ritual that
has been handed down to us through the
years from our English forefathers
mainly, and that of the Indian marriage
customs. The customs are quite different.
I note the following in this regard:
EXHIBIT ^ S • : -
Portraits of Famous
Indians , written by Ethel Brant Monture
(who I understand is a descendent of
Molly and Joseph Brant), published by
Clark Irwin & Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ontario,
in 1960, on Page 15 we read:
"William Johnson saw her (Molly),
for the second time he asked the Moh
Council for one of their daughters. T
did not please them. Caroline had li
for such a short time as his wife and
her children were motherless
William Johnson was still the friend
never criticized their ways or br
their laws, and so, reluctantly, they
the wedding arrangements be made."
o k e
EXHIBIT "T' : -
And from "The American Heritage Book of
Indians , by William Brandon, and pub-
lished by Dell Publishing Co. Inc., New
York, U.S. A., in 1961, on Page 198 is the
f ol lowing :
"The last two of his (William Johnson)
three wives were Mohawk the last being
Molly Brant, whose younger brother,
Joseph, became Johnson's special
EXHIBIT "U • : -
On page 5 of "Joseph Brant, Thayen-
danegea , by Mary M. Fraser, published by
the Board of Management of the Joseph
Brant Museum, Burlington, Ontario, in
1969, and printed by the Halton Press
Limited, Burlington, Ontario:
"William Johnson had an eye for a
pretty girl and asked to meet this
spirited Indian maiden. He took her as
his third wife and Miss Molly was the
gracious hostess in his home for the rest
of his life."
EXHIBIT "V :-
And on page 51 of "Grand River" , by
Mabel Dunham, published by T.H. Best
Printing Co. Ltd., Toronto, Ontario, for
McClelland & Stewart Limited, in 1945, is
"At the time of his marriage with Molly
Brant, Sir William built a lordly mansion
of frame sidings in imitation of stone
blocks. He called it Johnson Hall. It
stands to-day at Johnstown, N.Y. There He
and "Miss Molly" lived, an incongruous
couple, in princely style, half Indian
and half White."
EXHIBIT "W : -
Then on page 40 of "Six Nations Indians
- Yesterday and To-Day , 1867 - 1942" ,
which was the souvenir book published by
the Six Nations Agricultural Society to
commemorate the Diamond Anniversary of
that organization, is noted:
"According to tradition. Sir William
met the lovely sixteen-year old Indian
girl whose Indian name was "Deyonwa-
donte", at a militia muster, and admiring
her beauty and spirit in leaping onto a
horse being ridden by an officer, took
her as his wife according to Indian
custom • '*
EXHIBIT 'X ♦ : -
And noted on page 15 of "The Canadians
- Joseph Brant" , by A. Roy Petrie,
printed by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited,
150 Lesmill Road, Don Mills, Ontario, M3B
2T5, in 1978: (A.Roy Petrie is Superin-
tendent of Operations for the Lincoln
County Board of Education).
"In 1759, his wife died and he married
Joseph Brant's Sister Molly, according to
EXHIBIT ^ Y • : -
From "A Brief Lecture on Sir John
Johnson" , prepared by R.W.Bro. Jacob
(Jack) Pos , is also noted this on page 9:
"After the death of his second wife
Caroline, Sir William brought Molly Brant
into the household to care for his
children. It is generally assumed that
the two were married by Indian ceremony."
EXHIBIT ^Z • : -
I would also comment, that I would have
liked to have had a footnote on Bro.
Montgomery's review, as to where he
obtained the statement which was suppos-
edly taken from William L. Stone's book,
and which he quotes thusly:
** Stone says that Johnson employed
as his housekeeper Mary Brant by
whom he has several children."
I have searched and have been unable to
locate this passage, but I have located
the following on page 18, of Book I,
"Life of Joseph Brant - ThayendaneRea" ,
by William L. Stone:
"It is likewise well known, that after
the decease of Lady Johnson, (an event
which occurred several years antecedent
to the period of which we are now
writing, and before he had won his
Baronetcy at Lake George), Sir William
took to his home as his wife, Mary Brant,
or "Miss Molly", as she was called, with
whom he lived until his decease in 1774,
and by whom he had several children."
"This circumstance is thus mentioned by
Mrs. Grant in her delightful book already
referred to: "Becoming a widower in the
prime of life, he (William Johnson)
connected himself with an Indian maiden,
daughter of a Sachem, who possessed an
uncommonly agreeable person and good
understanding; and whether ever formally
married to him according to our usage, or
not, continued to live with him in great
union and affection all his life."
Brother Montgomery states also, on page
2, of his review, a reference to one of
Sir William's major biographers
James Thomas Flexner, who in 1959 had
this to say in this regard:
"Flexner refers to her (Molly Brant) as
Johnson's "First Formal Indian Wife", but
then goes on later to say that they were
not married according to the white man * s
Could it not be possible that Molly
Brant was married to Sir William accord-
ing to the Indian rites, and it is
because of this that in many books she is
referred to as. Sir William's wife? Does
it always have to be a marriage according
to a "White Man's Tradition" that
constitutes a "marriage"? It is my
feeling that the interpretation of
"Marriage" is the controversial point-
whether married by "Indian Rites", or by
the "White Man's Rites".
EXHIBIT ^ AA ' : -
In regard to the Portrait of Joseph
Brant. I would refer Bro. Montgomery to
page 4, of W.Bro. Gerard Brett's paper,
"The Life and Masonic Career of Joseph
Brant" , and which was presented at The
Canadian Masonic Research Association, at
Toronto, Ontario, on May 19, 1953, which
"Throughout his stay he appears to have
received attention from various people of
note; he is said to have been intimate
with Boswell (There is no mention of him
in the Life of Johnson, but the Boswell
Diaries for that year are not yet
published), and at Boswell's request, to
have sat at Romney for the famous
portrait which is now in the National
Gallery of Canada".
It seems when I
t h i
note a statement such
was made by such a
reputable a research person as W.Bro.
Brett, then I will accept it, and will
continue to accept such until it is
proven that it is untrue in a complete
and indisputable manner.
In regard to the Education of Joseph
Brant prior to attending the Moor Charity
School in Lebanon, Connecticut, Bro.
Montgomery wished to know just what
authority I had that Brant attended a
settler's school. I therefore present the
f ol lowing :
EXHIBIT ' BB • : -
From "The Canadians - Joseph Brant" , by
A. Roy Petrie, and printed by Fitzhenry
and Whiteside Limited, on page 18, the
following is noted:
"In addition to his training as a
soldier, he was sent to the village
school, and later to a school for Indian
students at Fort Hunter."
EXHIBIT ^CC : -
From "Canadian Portraits of Famous
Indians" , by Ethel Brant
published by Clark Irwin & Co
Toronto, Ontario, 1960, I noted on page
17 , this :
"A settlers' school had been started in
the Village of Canajoharie, where reading
and writing were taught. Here Joseph was
sent to study, but he was a reluctant
pupil; their beloved river, the Mohawk, a
busy water-road, was a sore temptation to
any school boy. Later he went to a school
for Indian children at Fort Hunter."
On page 28 of "Canadian Portraits of
as noted immediately
above, is also noted:
"Christine and Joseph had known each
other when they were pupils in the Fort
Hunter School The Reverend John
Stuart of Fort Hunter, who had been their
schoolmaster . "
EXHIBIT ^EE • : -
And from "Joseph Brant - A Man For His
People" , written by Helen Caister
Robinson, and printed by Longman Canada,
Limited, Don Mills, Ontario, in 1971:
(Mrs. Robinson was born in Tavistock,
Ontario, an active member of the Canadian
Author's Association, and the Big Sister
Movement, and now resides in Toronto,
Ontario), on page 22 is:
"Each day now, Thayendanegea went to
the village school. With sons and
daughters of white settlers in the
neighborhood, he learned to read, write,
do simple arithmetic sums.
He also learned the rules of Council
procedure . "
I used these and others similar, to
conclude the statement in my paper - and
I also note in Bro. Montgomery's review
on page 3, that he used Mrs. Helen
Caistor Robinson as a specific reliable
reference, and so it is no doubt that the
above reference Exhibit EE should be an
accepted fact being written by the same
per son .
In reference to the Communion Set given
by Queen Anne in 1712, to "Her Chapel of
the Mohawks" :
EXHIBIT 'FF • : -
I copied from "The Life and Masonic
Career of Joseph Brant" , which was the
paper presented by W.Bro. Gerard Brett,
to the Canadian Masonic Research Assoc-
iation at the Ninth meeting of the
Association held in Toronto, Ontario, on
May 19, 1953, page 6, paragraph 2:
"The Bible and Four Pieces of the
Silver are still treasured at Brantford;
two pieces of Silver were taken to
Deseronto on the northern side of Lake
Ontario, when some of the Six Nations
moved there at a later date."
Here again I have accepted W.Bro.
Brett's statement to start with.
EXHIBIT "GC : -
But, when I visited the Woodland Indian
Cultural Education Centre, at Brantford,
I was presented with a booklet entitled
"Two Hundred Years Along The Grand" , and
in it I noted an illustration of Queen
Anne Silver, Six Nations Council, and
there are four pieces as I have noted.
In regards to the fact of Sir William
Johnson being a "Chief", I would refer
Bro. Montgomery to some of the following
Stat ement s :
EXHIBIT "HH* : -
Taken from the publication "Six Nations
Indians - Yesterday and To-Day , 18 6 7-
19 4 2" , which was the souvenir book
published by the Six Nations Agricultural
Society to commemorate the Diamond
Anniversary of that organization. On page
40, and in the 4th paragraph is:
"It was shortly after receiving this
appointment he was made a Colonel of the
Militia, followed by the highest honour
the Six Nations could give, that of a
Chief, Colonel Johnson was given the
name, W-r a- i -ya-ge , said to mean - ^Chief
of Affairs*. He was also appointed to the
Executive Council of New York State'*.
EXHIBIT ^ II * :-
And from *' Joseph Brant ~ A Man For His
People'* , by Helen Caister Robinson, and
printed by Longman Canada, Limited, Don
Mills, Ontario, 1971, on page 14 is this:
**By common consent he had been adopted
into the Mohawk Nation with the name of
EXHIBIT ^ JJ * : -
On page 12 of "Life of Joseph Brant-
Thayendanegea , Book I, by William L.
Stone, which was published by Alexander
V. Blake, New York, 1838, and reprinted
by Kraus Reprint Co., New York, 1969, we
noted here in the footnote:
"The name which the Indians had
conferred upon Sir William and by which
he was almost invariably addressed".
Surely the Indians would not ^confer*
such a name on an ordinary citizen - it
would surely have been when he was made a
^Chief • .
A Brief Lecture on Sir
EXHIBIT ^KK • : -
Finally, fr om
John Johnson" , prepared by R.W.Bro. Jacob
(Jack) Pos, (no date, nor where and when
presented)*, I noted the following on
page 6, in regard to Sir William Johnson:
*Editor's note, this was a paper prepared
for a lecture tour of Waterloo and
Wellington Masonic Districts to raise
sufficient funds for the return to Canada
from New Zealand of the ^Patent of
Appointment' issued to Sir John Johnson
when he was appointed Provincial Grand
Master for Upper Canada in 1788.
"He (William Johnson) differed from all
other Indian traders in two respects. He
was scrupulously honest with the Indians,
and he would sell them no liquor. An
honest trader was a new experience for
the Indians, and he was soon accepted and
deeply respected He became guide,
counselor and friend, and was soon
elected a war chief of the Mohawk Nation
under the name of Wa r r ag h - i - y a - g a y (He
who does much business)."
EXHIBIT "LL' : -
On page 69 of R.W.Bro. Pos' review, he
made reference to the date of the
Organizational meeting of Barton Lodge
No. 10, as I noted as January 31, 1796,
as being incorrect, I would refer to a
statement noted on page 253 of the Grand
Lodge Publication "Whence Come We" , and
of which R.W.Bro. Wallace McLeod was the
Chairman of the historical portion. It
states this in reference to John Baptiste
Rous seau :
"In 1795 he removed from York to
Ancaster where he was one of the first
settlers. That year he was initiated into
St. John's Lodge of Friendship, No. 2,
Newark, and the next year (1796) he was a
charter member of Lodge No. 10, Barton."
As mentioned at the beginning of this
rebuttal, there are a great many inter-
pretations of the life of this except-
ional person. It seems that there is
hardly any part of the life of Worshipful
Brother Joseph Brant that cannot be
disputed in some manner. I have drawn
attention to but a few, but I know that
there must be many more.
The various items that have been
written by noted historians, and we feel
can be contradicted at the present time,
I feel should still be kept for ref-
erence. These must have come from some
reference known only by these historians,
that have not as yet been uncovered by
us, but could be brought to light at some
time in the future, and at that time it
could possibly fill in the "unknown"
blanks in these historical sketches.
William W. Mitchell
R.W.Bro. E. David Warren
P.D.D.G.M., Hamilton A
In the month of April in the year 1886
there was brought to the light in a lodge
working under the English Constitution in
a city situated near one of the outer-
most frontiers of the far-flung British
Empire, a young candidate of the name of
This young initiate was destined to
become one of the great lights of the
world of English letters and to enrich
the literature of our Craft with some of
its finest treasures.
Joseph Rudyard Kipling - he early
dropped his first name Joseph - was born
at Bombay on 30th December, 1865, the
first child of John Lockwood and Alice
Kipling. At the time of Rudyard's birth
his father, an artist of considerable
talent, held the position of principal of
the new school of art in the City of
On his father's side the family was
wholly Yorkshire. On the mother's side
the blood was Ce 1 t i c -H i gh 1 and Scottish,
Irish and Welsh. She was a Macdonald,
descending from a clansman who emigrated
from the Highlands to Northern Ireland
Paper presented at the Regular
Meeting of The Heritage Lodge held in
Belleville, Ontario, May 27, 1987.
after the 'A5 rebellion. It is inter-
esting to note that both Kipling's
grandfathers were Methodist ministers.
As the Indian climate was considered
injurious to the health of young children
of European parentage, Rudyard and his
young sister were boarded out in the
family of a retired naval captain at
Southsea, near Portsmouth, England, from
1871 to 1877.
From 1878 to 1882, Kipling w-^ ^
scholar at the United Services College at
Westward Ho near Bideford, in North
Of his life at this school he has given
us a highly-coloured record in his famous
school story, "Stalky & Co." and he has
also paid a generous tribute to the
masters who taught him there in the
verses entitled "A School Song".
~A School Song"
Western Wind and open surge
Took us from our mothers -
Flung us on a naked shore
(Twelve bleak houses by the shore!
Seven summers by the shore! )
Mid two hundred brothers.
There we met with famous men
Set in office o'er us.
This we learned from famous men.
Knowing not its uses.
When they shewed, in daily work,
Man must finish off his work -
Right or wrong, his daily work -
.. And without excuses.
Wherefore praise we famous men.
From whose bays we borrow -
They that put aside To-day -
All the joys of their To-day -
And with toil of their To-day -
Bought for us tomorrow!
Leaving school at the age of seventeen,
Kipling rejoined his family in India. At
Lahore and later at Allahabad he gained
valuable journalistic experience first on
the staff of the "Civil and Military
Gazette", and then on that of the
"Pioneer", and also laid the foundations
of his literary career with the publi-
cation of "Departmental Ditties", "Plain
Tales from the Hills", and other Indian
s t or ies •
In 1889 he left India for London, where
he immediately achieved remarkable
literary success. In 1892 he married an
American lady, Caroline Starr Balestier,
by whom he had three children. After
their marriage the Kiplings resided for
several years - until 1896 - at Brattle-
boro in the State of Vermont U.S.A., as
neighbours of Mrs. Kipling's family.
In 1897 he visited South Africa,
Australia and New Zealand, returning to
England by way of India where they lived
first at Torquay, then at Rottingdean
near Brighton, until finally they settled
at "Batemans", a Jacobean mansion, at
Burwash in Sussex, where they resided
until Kipling's death in 1936.
Kipling as a writer was a many-sided
genius and has a universal appeal to all
lovers of good literature. He speaks to
every one of us in our own language.
In appreciation of his genius I cannot
do better than quote Hilton Brown:
"Kipling brought the universe before
the multitude; he had a note in his music
for every listener; he threw his pearls
to every corner of the market place. He
covered the world and carried it as a toy
in his hand; if his own heart remained
hidden, he had looked closely into the
hearts of others - and he shared his
knowledge of them freely. In the wide
humanity of his dealings he touched
everyone sometime somewhere."
In 1907 Kipling was awarded the Nobel
prize for literature. In 1927 the Royal
Society of Literature awarded him the
Society's gold medal.
Kipling was a voluminous reader and
derived inspiration from many sources,
but all who are familiar with his work
will agree that the three great sources
from which come a great deal of his
literary power are the Bible, Shakespeare
and the legend and stately ritual of
During his most impressionable years he
was brought up at Southsea in a household
whose members were deeply religious, and
where Bible reading and hymn singing were
essential features of their way of life.
This early familiarity with the Bible
gave him an easy use of prophetic
language. Readers of Kipling's writings
cannot but be struck with the remarkable
frequency and the way in which Old
Testament names, stories, plots and
analogies are introduced always with
striking effect. The sonorous cadences
and rhythms of "Hymns Ancient and Modern"
have been used by Kipling with fine
effect in many of his poems.
Notwithstanding Kipling's Wesleyan
antecedents and the early Calvinistic
influences of the Southsea household, he
never became a devout follower of any
particular creed or dogma. Had the young
Kipling retained any tendencies toward a
narrow sectarianism when he returned to
India at the age of seventeen, they were
probably shaken by contact with the
mystically tolerant Hindu and the
aggressively devout Muslims.
Kipling's religious belief, of which he
was very reticent, holding that a man's
private religious beliefs were not for
publication, were probably as basic as
that set out in the affirmation into our
order - namely, a belief in God as the
Great Architect of the Universe. Of this
belief he made a personal confession to a
young lady friend to whom he wrote, "I
believe in the existence of a personal
God to whom we are personally responsible
for wrong doing. That it is our duty to
follow and our peril to disobey the ten
ethical laws laid down for us by Him and
His attitude to all religions was of a
wide toleration, which he expressed in
the se 1 ine s :
My brother kneels, so saith Kabiv
To stone and brass in heathen wise.
But in my brother's voice I hear
My own unanswered agonies.
His God is as his fates assign
His prayer is all the world
All through his literary life Kipling
extolled and preached the acceptance of
and obedience to "the Law",
Keep ye the Law - be swift in all
obedi ence -
Clear the land of evil, drive the road
and bridge the ford.
Make ye sure to each his own
That he reap where he hath sown.
By the peace among Our peoples
let men know we serve the Lord!
"The Law", according to Kipling's
interpretation, meant that arrangement of
life under which the common man is
enabled to do the best, which is in him
for himself for himself, his family, and
the rest of the world, including the
generations yet to come.
He believed that this arrangement of
life is planned for us all in the Volume
of the Sacred Law, particularly in the
Old Testament, which we are to consider
as the unerring standard of truth and
justice, and which teaches us the
important duties we owe to God, our
neighbour and ourselves.
From his experience in India he derived
the conception that mankind was divided
into two classes - those incapable of
managing their own affairs, and those
almost divinely appointed to manage these
affairs for them. He held that some must,
of necessity, rule and teach, so others
must, of course, learn, submit, and obey.
From his study of "The Law" and his
experience in India he distilled a
philosophy of life which may best be
described as a cult of action, of
worthwhile work and of service for the
welfare of our fellow man.
In order to qualify for reception into
this cult he exhorts us to cultivate the
manly virtues of self-reliance and
independence, the exercise of restraint,
observance of law and order, obedience to
authority, performance of duty, and
subjection to discipline.
No easy hope or lies
Shall bring us to our goal.
But iron sacrifice
Of body, will, and soul.
Though all we knew apart.
The old commandments stand -
In courage keep your heart.
In strength lift up your hand.
One of the principal tenets of
Kipling's philosophy was that greatness
might come from struggle and endurance
against heavy odds.
Kipling was initiated into Freemasonry
on April 5th, 1886, in Lodge of Hope and
Perseverance No. 782, E.G., at Lahore,
India, at the age of 20 by special
dispensation, as his father was not a
Freemason, because the lodge hoped for a
good secretary. However, before he could
be appointed Secretary he was transferred
to Allahabad where he affiliated with
Lodge Peace with Philanthropy.
But before leaving Lahore, he arranged
with his artist father to advise in
decorating the bare walls of the Masonic
Hall with hangings after the prescription
of Solomon's Temple.
"I was initiated," wrote Kipling, "by a
Hindu, passed by a Mohammedan, and raised
by an Englishman." Here he met Muslims,
Hindus, Sikhs, members of the Araya-
Samaj, and of the Br ahmo-Sama j , and a Jew
Tyler who was priest and butcher to his
little community in the city.
In the verses entitled, "The Mother
Lodge," Kipling has given us a descript-
ion of an Indian Lodge of which , no
doubt. Lodge Hope and Perseverance was
typical. The description is given as a
nostalgic reminiscence of a time-expired
British soldier who had served the Queen
somewhere east of Suez - out in far-off
India where he had been made a Freemason.
Of his initiation into Freemasonry
Kipling has written, "So another world
opened to me, which I needed."
This need of Kipling's which Free-
masonry satisfied was a craving for a
world-religion which would unite all
worthy men irrespective of caste, class
or creed, particularly the sort of men
whom he termed the "Sons of Martha", the
men who bear the burden of the world's
Returning to Lahore he took his Mark
Degree in Lodge Fidelity, and the Royal
Ark Mariners Degree in Lodge Ararat. In
his later years he was a member of Lodge
Motherland No. 3456, E.G., and of the
Authors Lodge, London, whose regular
meetings he attended when circumstances
permitted. The famous Scottish Lodge
Canongate Kilwinning No. 2, S.C., paid
him the signal honour of appointment as
poet laureate of the lodge, an office in
which another great Masonic poet, Robert
Burns, was inaugurated in 1787. When
Kipling was a member of the Imperial War
Graves Commission he became a foundation
member of two lodges whose members were
recruited from the staff and employees of
the Commission. Lodge "Builders of the
Silent Cities", No. 12 on the register of
the grande Nationale of France, and Lodge
"Builders", No. 4948, E.C,
KIPLING'S MASONIC STORIES
In the body of Kipling's work there are
over thirty poems and stories with
references to Freemasonry. One of the
stories, "The Man Who Would Be King", is
acclaimed as the finest short story in
the English language, and one of the
great short stories of the world. This
story was written by Kipling when he was
a young Freemason working as a journalist
in India. The fifty-two pages of this
magnificent story have enough packed in
them to make the fortunes of a dozen
romantic novels. It is a miracle of
compr es s ion .
For the account of how two adventurers
reached Kafiristan in disguise, of how
they discovered that the natives knew the
degrees and marks of Masonry up to the
Fellow Craft degree, of how, by the aid
of Freemasonry and Martini rifles they
established themselves as Kings and Grand
Masters of Kafiristan, and of the final
grim tragedy of their adventure, I must
refer you to the story itself.
Over thirty years after the publication
of "The Man Who Would Be King", he
published another great Masonic story,
"In the Interests of the Brethren". At
this time of his life Kipling was quite
plainly seeking for a Lodge in which he
could find fulfillment and peace, and
with this desire in his mind he wrote the
story of the Lodge of Instruction
attached to Lodge Faith and Works No.
5837, E.G. (this was, of course, a
fictitious lodge and number). In the
person of Worshipful Brother Burges,
Master of the Lodge, he has given us a
pc2u picture of a very worthy Freemason,
who believes, that, "All ritual is
fortifying. Ritual is a natural necessity
tor mankind. The more things are upset,
the more they fly to it. I abhor slovenly
ritual." The we were given a description
of the furnishings and appurtenances of
the lodge room in loving detail, an
appreciation of the quality and appro-
priateness of the instrumental and vocal
music, and some excellent thumbnail
sketches of several of the regular
br e t hr en .
The place of meeting is London, during
the first World War, and the Lodge
provides a place where the war-stricken
soldier Masons from the London hospitals
can meet in peace, love and harmony.
The visiting brethren are invited to
work one of the degrees, which they
flounder through rather badly. When the
amateurs have finished they demand an
exemplification working of their bungled
ceremony by regular brethren of the
lodge. "Then", writes Kipling, "I
realized for the first time what word and
gesture perfect ritual can be brought to
mean • "
Then, as Kipling and his friend.
Worshipful Brother Burges, leave after
the final toast, the latter gives us a
final thought: "Think what could be done
by Masonry, through Masonry, for all the
When Kipling gave this story to the
world he appended to it a set of verses
entitled, "Banquet Night". Evidently,
when he was writing the story, it must
have occurred to him that our traditional
history is rather vague as to the origin
of that essential part of our regular
meetings - the festive board - refresh-
ment after labour - the South. So he
proceeded to invent a legend which tells
how this very pleasant custom originated,
and this is what he tells us -
"Once in so often". King Solomon
Watching his quarrymen drill the
We will club our garlic and wine
And banquet together beneath my
And all the Brethren shall come to
that mes s
As fellow-craftsmen - no more
and no less.
"Send a swift shallop to Hiram of
Felling and Floating our beautiful
Say that the brethren and I desire
Talk with our brethren who use
the seas ,
And we shall be happy to meet
t hem at me s s
As fellow-craftsmen - no more
and no less.
"Carry this message to Hiram
Excellent Master of forge and mine
I and the brethren would like it if
He and the brethren would come
to d ine .
(Garments from Bazrah or morn-
As fellow-craftsmen - no more
and no less.
"God gave the Hyssop and Cedar
t he i r pi ace -
Also the Bramble, the Fig, and
the Thorn -
But that is no reason to black a
man * s face
Because he is not what he hasn't
been borne .
And, as touching the Temple, I
hold and profess
We are fellow-craftsmen - no
more and no less."
So it was ordered and so it was
And the hewers of wood and the
Masons o f Mark
With foc'stle hands of the Sidon
And Navy Lords from the "Royal
Came and sat down and were
merry at me s s .
As fellow-craftsmen - no more and
The quarries' are hotter than Hi-
ram ' s forge
No one is safe from the dog-whip's
It's mostly snowing up Lebanon
And its mostly blowing off Joppa
But once in so often, the messenger
Solomon's mandate: "Forget these
Brother to Beggars and Fellow to
Companion of Princes - forget
these things !
Fellow-craftsmen - forget these
things ! "
There is another poem of Kipling's
entitled "The Palace" which, in symbolic
form reminds Freemasons of today of what
they owe to their brethren of the past
and of their duty to those who follow
after. When we come into Freemasonry we
find that we are heirs to a great
tradition. We are the fortunate success-
ors of a long line of worthy brethren who
have bequeathed to us a noble science, a
beneficent system of morality and a
mystic tie of brotherhood illustrated by
an eloquent ritual and a stately ceremon-
ial. It is our duty, in the short time
permitted to us, to see that our work is
good and worthy of those who have gone
before; and it is our responsibility to
pass the heritage on to our posterity
pure and unsullied as we received it, so
that they will know that we, the builders
of today, have worked in accordance with
the teachings of the square
and the plumb-rule.
Kipling was acclaimed as the Laureate
of the British Empire. He made popular
the ideal of a common imperial patriotism
transcending every diversity of birth and
circumstance, ennobled by an ideal of
"And what do they know of England, who
only England know?" wrote Kipling, in his
great poem of Empire, "The English Flag."
Professor Carrington, in his biography,
tells us how Kipling helped the
Englishman to answer that question:
"Since the story of the British fifty
years ago was the story of the British
overseas, in the age of the great empire
builders - Cromer, Curzon, Kitchener,
Milner, Johnston, Lugard and Rhodes - it
was Kipling's task to reveal the secrets
of their actual life to his contempor-
aries. For a whole generation, homesick-
ness was reversed by Kipling's magic
spell. Englishmen felt the days of
England sick and cold, and the skies grey
and old, heard the East a-calling, fawned
on the younger nations, learned to speak
the jargon of the seven seas; while in
the outposts of the Empire, men who read
no other books, recognised and approved
glimpses of their own lives in phrases
from Kipling's verse: the flying fishes
and the thunder clouds over the Bay of
Bengal, the voyage outward bound till the
old lost stars wheel back, the palm trees
bowing down beneath a low African moon,
the wild tide race that whips the harbour
mouth at Melbourne, the broom flowering
above the windy town of Wellington, the
Islands where the sea egg flames on the
coral and the long-backed breakers croon
their endless ocean legends to the lazy
Yet the writer who did all this could,
when the occasion demanded, be a severe
critic of his own people. Such an
occasion was Queen Victoria's Diamond
Jubilee, when the power of Britain was at
its greatest might and the Empire was at
its widest extent. It was a moment of
arrogance and boasting. Kipling's
reaction was to remind the nation that
humility not pride, awe not arrogance, a
sense of transience not a sense of
permanence, should be the keynotes of the
Kipling stresses our duty to remember
the sacred and indissoluble attachment to
the country whence we derived our birth
and infant nature, when he writes:-
Land of our Birth, our faith, our
pr ide ,
For whose dear sake our fathers
Oh, Motherland, we pledge to thee
Head, heart, and hand through the
year s to be !
The lesson of natural equality and
mutual dependence which every candidate
received on the night of his initiation
is told in other words by Kipling in the
first stanza of his great "Ballad of East
and Wes t . "
Oh, East is East, and West is
West, and never the twain
sha 1 1 mee t ,
Till Earth and Sky stand presently
at God's great Judgment
But there is neither East nor
West, Border, nor Breed, nor
When two strong men stand face to
face though they come from
the ends of the earth!
No lines of Kipling's have been more
freely quoted and more often misquoted in
exactly the opposite sense to that which
Kipling gave them. The first couplet of
the stanza is an echo from the Psalms
where the estranging distances of the
focal points of the compass are used as a
figure of speech to express the univers-
ality of the Divine Law; the second
couplet is Kipling's commentary, with the
same theme as the psalmist. The divine
spark in human nature transcends all
earthly distinctions. This was the life-
long message that Kipling preached,
acceptance of "The Law" revealed to
strong men who recognize each others
valour. The moral of the verse is not
that East and West differ, but that men
of all races are alike at heart.
That no eminence of station should make
us forget that we are Brothers was
emphasized by Kipling when he wrote:-
Deliver me from every pride -
the Middle High and Low -
That bars me from a brother's
side whatever pride he show
And purge me from all heresies
of thought and speech and pen
That bid me judge him otherwise
than I am judged. Amen!
That I may sing of crow or King
or road borne company.
That I may labour in my day,
vocation and degree
To prove the same by deed and
name, and hold unshakingly
(Where'er I go what ' er I know,
who'er my neighbour be)
This single faith in Life and
Death and to Eternity:
The people. Lord Thy people, are
good enough for me.
In the verse entitled "The Wage
Slaves", he points out to us that those
who are placed in the lowest spoke of
fortune's wheel, the hired labourers, the
wage earners, are equally entitled to our
Not such as scorn the loitering street.
Or waste to earn its praise.
Their noontide's unreturning heat
About their morning ways;
But such as dower each mortgaged hour
Alike with clean courage -
Even the men who do the work
For which they draw the wage -
Men, like to Gods, that do the work
For which they draw the wage.
In the final charge to the candidates
at his initiation he is exhorted to
dedicate himself to such pursuits as will
enable him to continue respectable in
life, useful to mankind, and to become an
ornament of the Society of which he has
become a member.
We have said before that one of the
principal tenets of Kipling's social
philosophy was the dedication to worth-
while work, and the men whose worth he
extolled in golden words were those who
had rendered themselves useful to
mankind, the men of his generation who
had bridged the Forth, built the Uganda
railway, irrigated the Punjab, crushed
the ore of the Golden Mile at Kalgoorlie,
served with the mounties at Klondike,
tunneled through the Rockies, revealed
the secrets of the Earth's surface, and
learned to fly. These were the men whom
he called the "Sons of Martha".
Kipling's work nobly teaches the worth
of those old fashioned virtues of man
which we hope will never go out of
fashion - to do one's duty, to live
stoically, to live cleanly, to live
cheerfully. Such lessons can never be
taught too often, and these are the
lessons we Freemasons should carry, by
word and example, to the world beyond our
1 odge s .
The impulse and circumstance of
Kipling's own life were important only in
relation to the Law, that temple built to
the design of the Great Overseer to whom
he made this prayer:-
My newcut Ashlar takes the light
Where crimson-blank the windows flare.
By my own work before the night.
Great Overseer, I make my prayer.
If there be good in that I wrought
Thy Hand compelled Master, Thine -
Where I have failed to meet Thy thought
I know though Thee, the blame was mine.
One instant's toil to Thee denied
Stands all Eternity's offence.
Of that I did with Thee to guide.
To Thee, through Thee be excellence.
The depth and dream of my desire.
The bitter paths wherein I stay.
Though knowest Who has made the Fire,
Thou knowest Who hast made the Clay,
Who, lest all thought of Eden fade,
..Bring'st Eden to the craftsman's brain-
Godlike to muse on his own Trade
And man-like stand with God again!
One stone the more swings into place
In that dread Temple of Thy worth.
It is enough that, through Thy Grace,
I saw nought common on Thy Earth.
Take not that vision from my ken -
Oh, whatso'er may spoil or speed
Help me to need no aid from men
That I may help such men as need.
In the echoes of these words of
Kipling's we hear our own unanswered
agonies; his prayer is all the world's-
and ours !
So Mote it be !
Dav i d Warren
GUIDELINES FOR THOSE PREPARING PAPERS
FOR PRESENTATION TO THE HERITAGE LODGE
The following notes are assembled to
assist those who may wish to present a
paper at a meeting of The Heritage Lodge.
They are designed to maintain a consis-
tent literary style and quality.
1. The submission of a paper to The
Heritage Lodge grants to the
Lodge the full power to print,
reprint or otherwise publish the
paper in whole or in part without
requiring any further permission
from the author, his heirs or
2. The author should be aware that
the paper could be subjected to
review by other masons.
FORM OF THE MANUSCRIPT :
!• All manuscripts should be typed
on one side of heavy bond paper
and doubl e- spaced • Margins should
be at least one inch and prefer-
ably one and one-half inch on
both sides; and one and three-
quarter inch on top and bottom.
2. Each sheet must be numbered
sequentially at the bottom centre
of the page. Insertions should be
on a separate sheet and numbered,
for example, 22A or 22B, and
included as extra pages, showing
clearly where the insertion is to
be made .
SUBJECT MATTER OF THE MANUSCRIPT :
1. The topic selected for presenta-
tion is generally the choice of
the author and, in most cases,
relate to the history of Free-
masonry. A suggested topic is a
biographical sketch of a disting-
uished mason, who may have made a
significant contribution to our
masonic heritage, or who may have
participated in an important
event that affected the course of
masonic history. Other inter-
esting topics could include: the
history, development or evolution
of lodge furniture, ornaments,
jewels, working tools or ritual,
LENGTH OF PRESENTATION :
1. The time alloted for presentation
of a paper in the lodge is NOT
MORE THAN 45 MINUTES. Paper
reviews and the summarizing
rebuttal should not exceed 15
minu t e s each •
TIME SCHEDULING :
1. When the date of presentation has
been agreed upon, then set the
target date for completion of the
manuscript at least 15 WEEKS
PRIOR TO THE DATE OF PRESENTA-
TION. This will allow for the
foil owi ng :
TIME (weeks) OPERATION
1 - author mails original paper
to program coordinator
2-P.C. makes copies and
1 - P.C. mails copies to review-
ers and edi tor ;
3 - review paper and prepare
1 - mail reviews to P.C.;
1 - P.C. assembles and makes
copies of all written
r evi ews ;
1 - P.C. mails copies of written
reviews to author and editor;
3 - author prepares written
rebut t a 1 ;
1 - author mails written rebuttal
1 - P.C. mails author's rebuttal
to edi tor .
15 weeks - plus author's
time to prepare
pape r .
A. ABBREVIATIONS :
1. Abbreviations can be divided into
two classes: those included in
the text and those in footnotes,
endnotes and appendices. In
general, abbreviations should be
avoided in the text, but are
acceptable in the appendices.
All offices should be written in
full, for example: Deputy Grand
Master, Past Master, Junior
Warden, Senior Deacon, etc., and
not shown as D.G.M., P.M., J.W.,
S.D., etc.; although a rank may
be shown as "William Gavel,
G.S.W."; however it is preferable
to write it in full as in this
instance: "William Gavel was
invested with the rank of Grand
When the exact year is not known,
the following should be used in
the text: c. 1737. Acceptable in
the text is
"e.g." for ^for example';
for ^and so forth*.
For appendices the following may
be used: "C" for ^century', ie,
20th C; "b" for ^born'; "d" for
"died', "Ibid" for "as in the
previous reference'; "op. cit."
for "in the work quoted'; "ed."
for "edition'; "vol." for "vol-
ume'; "n." for "number'; "p." for
"page'; "pp." for "pages';
"illus." for "illustration'; "MS"
for "Manuscript'; "A.Q.C." for
the "Transactions' of the Quatuor
Coronati Lodge, No. 2076, London.
Ages should be expressed as "36
years old", or "at the age of
36", or "in his thirty-sixth
FORMS OF REFERENCE:
1. Biblical references should be
given t hus :
1 Kings 6:21-30 or Ruth 2:19.
2. Bibliographical references should
be given in the form:
Bailey, William K., "The Constitution of
Grand Lodge, 1855-1979".
Proceedings of The Heritage
Lodge, No. 730, G.R.C. , Cambri-
dge, Ontario, vol. 2, n. 6, pp.
8-19, Sept. 1979.
Carr, Harry, The Freemason at Work ,
Burgess & Son (Abingdon) Ltd.,
Oxfordshire, England, pp. 425,
The Age of Faith , Simon &
Schuster, New York, 1950.
Knoop, Douglas, G.P. Jones & Douglas
H a m e r , The Early Masonic Catechi-
sms , 2nd ed., pp. 40-44, London,
McLeod, Wallace E., "Simon McGillivray
(ca 1785-1840)", (Inaugural
Address), in A.Q.C., vol. 96, pp.
1-35 , 1983 .
C. DATES AND FIGURES :
1. Dates should be shown as "15
March" and not "the 15th of
March' or 'March 15th'. A span of
years should be written as "from
1820 to 1833" and not 'from 1820-
33'. However, "In the 1860s" is
acceptable. Always use "eigh-
teenth century", never ^XVIII
century*; but remember, when used
as an adjective, the century
should be written "18th-century
2. All figures up to one hundred in
the text should be spelt out, but
figures are permissible for
numbers greater than one hundred.
One exception occurs when both
appear in the same passage: in
that case, a decision should be
made as to which should be used:
be consistent, either use all
figures or all spelt out.
1. Always use "first degree" in the
text, never ^Ist degree*. The
word lodge is to be used as in
the two following examples: "The
lodge met at Markham", and *'The
Lodge of Friendship'*. Certain
words relating to masonic
symbolism such as (Three Great
Lights, Moveable Jewels, Plumb
Rule, etc.,) should be capital-
ized. But others of common
masonic usage such as (regalia,
apron, collars, jewel, etc.,)
need not be capitalized. Do not
capitalize any word that does not
E. PUNCTUATION :
1. It is unnecessary to go into to
much detail, but perhaps three
marks should be mentioned:
dashes, these should be avoided
or used with great discretion;
quotation marks, quotations are
set within double quotation
marks » and quotations within
quotations are marked with single
quotation marks; and lastly
apostrophes, it is correct to
write the possessive of a word or
modern name ending in "s" as
" . . . s • s •• .
F. FOOTNOTES ;
1. Footnotes should be avoided by
incor-porating the relevant
matter in the body of the text.
It is felt that we cannot do
better than follow the lead of
Quatuor Coronati Lodge No. 2076
and say that in some instances
notes are essential and it is the
practice to collect these at the
end of each paper rather than at
the foot of each page. References
are numbered chronologically or
alphabetically with the corres-
ponding numerical reference
appearing in the text as a super-
script, e.g. "MilborneS". q^ iY\
brackets, e.g. "Milborne (8)".
OUR DEPARTED BRETHREN
The following names of deceased
Brethren have come to our attention
during the past year. Some dates of death
were not known.
FORD N. RUPERT, P.G.R.
Init. Consecon Lodge No. 50
Spruce Falls Lodge No. 648
Died, May 24, 1986.
TERRANCE JOHN THOM, P.M.
Espanola Lodge No. 527
Died, May 28, 1986.
TERRENCE R. WILLIAMS, P.D.D.G.M.
Ki t chener
Twin City Lodge No. 509
Died, October 25, 1986.
HAROLD S. RODGERS, M.M.
Reba Lodge No. 515
Died, November 9, 1986
ALBERT ROSS TUCKER, P.M.
Wi 1 lowda 1 e
Caledonia Lodge No. 637
(Not advised of date of death)
HERBERT FREDERICK BROMWICH, P.G.S.
Unionv i 1 1 e
Zeta Lodge No. 410
(Not advised of date of death)
Please note corrections for bottom of
page 14 3 of Proceedings for last year.
ALFRED MAIZELS, P.M.
Palestine Lodge No. 559
Died, March, 1986.
RAYMOND PRITCHARD RIVERS, M.M.
Pe t er borough
J.B. Hall Lodge No. 145
Died, April 11, 1986
WE CHERISH THEIR MEMORIES
GEORGE EDWARD ZWICKER
Worshipful Master 1981 - 1982
July 15, 1922, Mahone Bay, Nova Scotia.
Grew up on his father's dairy farm.
Mahon Bay High School.
Correspondence course. Public and Labour Relat-
Militia, West Nova Scotia Regt., 1939
4th Princess Louise Dragoon Guards, 1940-45
Reserved Force (WO 2), 1949-54
Canadian General Electric Co. , Peterborough.
London Life Ins. and Cherney Bros., Peterboro-
R.O.P. Inspector and Supervisor, 1953-79
Initiated, Corinthian Lodge No. 101, 1955
Worshipful Master, Corinthian Lodge, 1979
Historian, Corinthian Lodge, (to date), 1983
Charter Member The Heritage Lodge No. 730, 1977
Worshipful Master, The Heritage Lodge, 1982
Secretary, Peterborough Masonic Dist. 1985
Grand Steward, G.R.C., 1986
Grand Historian, G.R.C. , 1987
Peterborough Lodge of Perfection, 1971
Peterborough Chapter Rose Croix, 1972
Moore Sovereign Consistory, Hamilton, 1972
Corinthian Chapter No. 36, R.A.M. , 1975
(First Principal, 1983)
Moore Preceptory No. 13, 1975
(Presiding Preceptor, 1984)
Member of the following organizations:
Zabud Council No. 15, Royal and Select Masters,
Hiram Council No. 24, Kawartha Lakes Lodge
Royal Ark Mariners No. 21, Athelstan York Rite
College No. 41, Kawartha Council No. 143-
Allied Masonic Degrees (U.S.A.), Order of High
Priesthood of Ontario, Moore Conclave No. 15-
Red Cross of Constantine, Rameses Temple-
A. A.O.N .M. S . , Kawartha Shrine Club, and Direc-
tor Peterborough Masonic Temple Limited.
Boating, fishing, golfing, oil painting, wood
working, and Spanish guitar.
GRAND LODGE OFFICERS (1986-1987)
THE MOST WORSHIPFUL THE GRAND MASTER
M.W.Bro. A. Lou Copeland
7449 Victoria Park Ave., Markham, L3R 2Y7
THE DEPUTY GRAND MASTER
R.W.Bro. William R. Pellow
240 Wharncliffe Rd . N . . Suite 300;
London, N6H 4P2
THE GRAND SECRETARY
M.W.Bro. Robert E. Davies
P.O. Box 217, Hamilton, L8N 3C9
THE HERITAGE LODGE OFFICERS (1986-1987)
Worshipful Mas t er , W . Bro . Albert A. Barker
Immediate Past Master ,
R.W.Bro. Robert S. Throop
Senior Warden, R.W.Bro. Edsel C. Steen
Junior Warden, R.W.Bro. Edmund V. Ralph
Chaplain, R.W.Bro. Rev. Arthur W. Watson
Treasurer, R.W.Bro. Duncan J. McFadgen
Secretary, R.W.Bro. Rev. W. Gray Rivers
Assistant Sec'y, W.Bro. George F. Moore
Senior Deacon, V.W.Bro. Donald B. Kaufman
Junior Deacon , R . W • Bro . Wilfred Greenhough
Dir. of Ceremonies , R . W. Bro . C. Edwin Drew
Inner Guard, W.Bro. Frank G. Dunn
Tyler, R.W.Bro. Kenneth Whiting
Senior Steward, W.Bro. Stephen Maizels
Junior Steward, W.Bro. David Fletcher
Organist, R.W.Bro. Leonard Hertel
Historian, R.W.Bro. Fred Branscombe
1977 (U.D.) R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos
1978 R.W.Bro. Jacob (Jack) Pos
1979 R.W.Bro. Keith R. Flynn
1980 R.W.Bro. Donald Grinton
1981 M.W.Bro. Ronald E. Groshaw
1982 V.W.Bro. George E. Zwicker
1983 R.W.Bro. Balfour LeGresley
1984 R.W.Bro. David C. Bradley
1985 R.W.Bro. C. Edwin Drew
1986 R.W.Bro. Robert S. Throop
CHAIRMEN, LODGE COMMITTEES (1986-87)
Archivist, W.Bro. Glen T. Jones
Editor, R.W.Bro. Jack Pos
R.W.Bro. David C. Bradley
Finance, W.Bro. Donald D. Thornton
Membership, R.W.Bro. William G. Bodley
Bl. Cr. Mas'c Her., V.W.Bro. Alan D. Hogg
Cen'l Data Bank, W.Bro. F. James M. Major
Spec'l Events, R.W.Bro. K. L. Whiting
Refreshments, W.Bro. Stephen Maizels
Audi tors :
R.W.Bros. James Curtis & Ken Bartlett
The Heritage Corporation:
President, Jack Pos
Secretary, E. V. Ralph
5 6 Cast legrove
Don Mills, M3A 1L2